International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
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Weeds Resistant to PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
by species and country
Weeds Resistant to PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
by species and country
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Weeds Resistant to PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
by species and country
#SpeciesCountryFirst Year
1 Alopecurus japonicus
Japanese Foxtail
1990 - China
19905Alopecurus japonicusJapanese FoxtailC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
2 Alopecurus myosuroides
Blackgrass
1979 - Israel
1982 - United Kingdom
1983 - Germany *Multiple - 2 SOA's
1989 - Netherlands
1991 - Spain
1996 - Belgium
1996 - Belgium *Multiple - 5 SOA's
1996 - Netherlands *Multiple - 2 SOA's
1997 - Switzerland
2007 - Germany *Multiple - 4 SOA's
2015 - Spain *Multiple - 3 SOA's
19796Alopecurus myosuroidesBlackgrassC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
3 Amaranthus powellii
Powell Amaranth
1999 - Canada (Ontario) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
2001 - United States (Michigan) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
199915Amaranthus powelliiPowell AmaranthC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
4 Amaranthus retroflexus
Redroot Pigweed
1980 - Germany *Multiple - 2 SOA's
1984 - Bulgaria
2001 - Canada (Ontario)
2001 - Canada (Quebec)
2001 - United States (Michigan) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
198016Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot PigweedC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
5 Ambrosia artemisiifolia
Common Ragweed
1999 - Canada (Quebec)
199918Ambrosia artemisiifoliaCommon RagweedC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
6 Apera spica-venti
Silky Windgrass
1994 - Switzerland
1997 - Germany
2005 - Czech Republic *Multiple - 2 SOA's
2006 - Sweden
2009 - Austria *Multiple - 2 SOA's
2009 - Germany *Multiple - 3 SOA's
2012 - Poland
199420Apera spica-ventiSilky WindgrassC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
7 Beckmannia syzigachne
American Sloughgrass
1993 - China
199331Beckmannia syzigachneAmerican SloughgrassC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
8 Bromus tectorum
Downy Brome (Cheatgrass)
1990 - Spain
199040Bromus tectorumDowny Brome (Cheatgrass)C257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
9 Chenopodium album
Common Lambsquarters
1994 - Norway
199447Chenopodium albumCommon LambsquartersC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
10 Chloris barbata = (C. inflate)
Swollen Fingergrass
1987 - United States (Hawaii)
198753Chloris barbata = (C. inflate)Swollen FingergrassC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
11 Conyza canadensis
Horseweed
1988 - France
2002 - United States (Michigan) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
2002 - United States (Michigan)
198861Conyza canadensisHorseweedC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
12 Cyperus difformis
Smallflower Umbrella Sedge
2013 - United States (California)
201371Cyperus difformisSmallflower Umbrella SedgeC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
13 Echinochloa colona
Junglerice
1987 - Costa Rica
1988 - Colombia
1998 - Costa Rica *Multiple - 3 SOA's
1999 - El Salvador
1999 - Guatemala
1999 - Honduras
1999 - Panama
2000 - Venezuela
2010 - Venezuela *Multiple - 3 SOA's
2011 - United States (Arkansas) *Multiple - 3 SOA's
198778Echinochloa colonaJunglericeC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
14 Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli
Barnyardgrass
1986 - Greece
1990 - United States (Arkansas)
1991 - United States (Texas)
1994 - United States (Missouri)
1995 - United States (Louisiana)
1997 - Sri Lanka
1998 - Thailand *Multiple - 2 SOA's
1999 - United States (Arkansas) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
2000 - Italy
2005 - Philippines *Multiple - 2 SOA's
2011 - United States (Mississippi) *Multiple - 4 SOA's
198679Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrassC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
15 Echinochloa erecta
Pollacci Barnyardgrass
2004 - Italy *Multiple - 2 SOA's
2005 - Italy
2004236Echinochloa erectaPollacci BarnyardgrassC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
16 Euphorbia heterophylla
Wild Poinsettia
1990 - Ecuador
199087Euphorbia heterophyllaWild PoinsettiaC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
17 Ischaemum rugosum
Saramollagrass
2004 - Venezuela *Multiple - 3 SOA's
200499Ischaemum rugosumSaramollagrassC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
18 Kochia scoparia
Kochia
2004 - United States (North Dakota) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
2004101Kochia scopariaKochiaC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
19 Leptochloa chinensis
Chinese Sprangletop
2006 - Malaysia
2006223Leptochloa chinensisChinese SprangletopC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
20 Leptochloa scabra
Rough Sprangletop
2013 - Venezuela
2013291Leptochloa scabraRough SprangletopC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
21 Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum
Italian Ryegrass
1990 - United Kingdom
1990110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian RyegrassC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
22 Lolium rigidum
Rigid Ryegrass
1992 - Spain *Multiple - 2 SOA's
1992112Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
23 Phalaris minor
Little seed Canary grass
1991 - India
2006 - India *Multiple - 3 SOA's
1991127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grassC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
24 Poa annua
Annual Bluegrass
1994 - United States (Oregon)
1994130Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
25 Portulaca oleracea
Common Purslane
1991 - United States (Michigan) *Multiple - 2 SOA's
1991138Portulaca oleraceaCommon PurslaneC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
26 Schoenoplectus mucronatus (=Scirpus mucronatus)
Ricefield Bulrush
2014 - United States (California)
2014182Schoenoplectus mucronatus (=Scirpus mucronatus)Ricefield BulrushC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
27 Senecio vernalis
Eastern Groundsel
2014 - Israel *Multiple - 5 SOA's
2014327Senecio vernalisEastern GroundselC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
28 Senecio vulgaris
Common Groundsel
1987 - Switzerland
1987148Senecio vulgarisCommon GroundselC257PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides)
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Thursday, August 17, 2017 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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