International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP C1/5 RESISTANT BIRDSRAPE MUSTARD
(Brassica rapa (=B. campestris))


Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)

Canada, Quebec
INTRODUCTION BIRDSRAPE MUSTARD
Birdsrape Mustard (Brassica rapa (=B. campestris)) is a dicot weed in the Brassicaceae family.  In Quebec this weed first evolved resistance to Group C1/5 herbicides in 1977 and infests Corn (maize).   Group C1/5 herbicides are known as Photosystem II inhibitors (Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to atrazine and they may be cross-resistant to other Group C1/5 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Dec 28, 2000 )

Common NameBirdsrape Mustard
SpeciesBrassica rapa (=B. campestris)
GroupPhotosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
Herbicidesatrazine
LocationCanada, Quebec
Year1977
Situation(s)Corn (maize)
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Hugh Beckie 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Hugh Beckie
V. Souza Machado, J. D. Bandeen, G. R. Stephenson, and P. Lavigne. 1978. Uniparental inheritance of chloroplast atrazine tolerance in Brassica campestris. Can. J. Plant Sci., 58 : 977-981. Also: V. Souza Machado and J. D. Bandeen. 1982. Genetic analysis of chloroplast atrazine resistance in Brassica campestris - cytoplasmic inheritance. Weed Sci. 30:281-285. Also: L. R. Mapplebeck, V. Souza Machado, and B. Grodzinski. 1982. Seed germination and seedling growth characteristics of atrazine-susceptible and resistant biotypes of Brassica campestris. Can. J. Plant Sci. 62:733-739.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Birdsrape Mustard biotype with this Birdsrape Mustard biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group C1/5 resistant Birdsrape Mustard indicate that the inheritance is determined by a one gene, dominant, cytoplasmic trait.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group C1/5 resistant Birdsrape Mustard from Quebec indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

Researchers have indicated that Group C1/5 resistant Birdsrape Mustard is ecologically less fit than normal susceptible Birdsrape Mustard.  Triazine resistant weeds often exhibit a lower relative fitness when compared to susceptible biotypes.  The most common mutation conferring triazine resistance (Ser 264 to Gly mutation of the psbA gene) also causes a reduction in CO2 fixation, quantum yield, and seed and biomass production..  There may be a note below or an article discussing the fitness of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

HUGH BECKIE
Research Scientist
Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Science & Technology Branch
Herbicide-Resistant & Novel-Trait Plants
107 Science Place
Saskatoon, S7N 0X2, Saskatchewan
Canada
Email Hugh Beckie

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Quebec have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Hugh Beckie for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Birdsrape Mustard Globally
(Brassica rapa (=B. campestris))
Herbicide Resistant Birdsrape Mustard Globally
(Brassica rapa (=B. campestris))
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Birdsrape Mustard Globally
(Brassica rapa (=B. campestris))
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Canada (Quebec) CanadaQuebec1977 Corn (maize) atrazine 7 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
36Brassica rapa (=B. campestris)Birdsrape Mustard433
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