International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
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Herbicide Resistant Rigid Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium rigidum)
Herbicide Resistant Rigid Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium rigidum)
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Herbicide Resistant Rigid Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium rigidum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1982 Barley, Canola, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass15
2 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1982 Barley, and Wheat chlorpropham, chlorsulfuron, clomazone, diclofop-methyl, ethalfluralin, fluazifop-P-butyl, imazapyr, metolachlor, metsulfuron-methyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, triallate, triasulfuron, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 7 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/13)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
Mitosis inhibitors (K2/23)
Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15)
Lipid Inhibitors (thiocarbamates) (N/8)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass389
3 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1984 Barley, Cropland, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, and metsulfuron-methyl 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass324
4 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1984 Cropland, and Pasture seed trifluralin 1 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass330
5 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1984 Cropland metolachlor 1 Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass398
6 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria1984 Barley, Pastures, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, metsulfuron-methyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, sethoxydim, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5042
7 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 1985 Barley, Canola, Chickpea, Faba beans, Lentils, Lupins, Peas, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, triasulfuron, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass4
8 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1988 Railways, and Roadsides amitrole 1 Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass316
9 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1988 Cropland, Pasture seed, Railways, Roadsides, and Triazine-tolerant canola atrazine, and simazine 1 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass480
10 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1994 Cereals trifluralin 1 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5226
11 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria1996 Canola, Cereals, Fencelines, and Wheat glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass380
12 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 1997 Apples, Around Buildings, Canola, Cereals, Fencelines, Irrigation Channels, Roadsides, and Wheat glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5094
13 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1999 Alfalfa, Cereals, Clover, Fencelines, Grapes, Irrigation Channels, and Roadsides glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5188
14 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria1999 Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, glyphosate, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5363
15 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2003 Cereals, Fencelines, Grapes, Railways, and Roadsides glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5325
16 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2008 Grapes amitrole, and glyphosate 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5515
17 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2010 Pasture seed clethodim, and paraquat 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5489
18 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2010 Pasture seed atrazine, chlorsulfuron, clethodim, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and paraquat 1 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5510
19 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2013 Grapes glyphosate, and paraquat 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass6754
20 ChileChile 1997 Canola, Cereals, Lupins, Spring wheat, and Winter wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, haloxyfop-methyl, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 8 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5102
21 ChileChile 2003 Wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, flucarbazone-sodium, haloxyfop-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, pinoxaden, and tepraloxydim 8 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5427
22 FranceFrance 1993 Wheat diclofop-methyl 17 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass550
23 FranceFrance 2005 Grapes, and Orchards glyphosate 17 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5285
24 FranceFrance 2006 Wheat flupyrsulfuron-methyl-sodium, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, and propoxycarbazone-sodium 17 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5330
25 GreeceGreece 1997 Winter wheat diclofop-methyl 19 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass553
26 IranIran 2007 Winter wheat diclofop-methyl 79 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5340
27 IsraelIsrael 1979 Orchards, and Roadsides atrazine, and simazine 23 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass97
28 IsraelIsrael 1998 Alfalfa diclofop-methyl, and quizalofop-P-ethyl 23 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5109
29 IsraelIsrael 2007 Wheat chlorsulfuron, clodinafop-propargyl, florasulam, flumetsulam, glyphosate, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metosulam, pinoxaden, propoxycarbazone-sodium, sulfometuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 23 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5556
30 ItalyItaly 2007 Grapes, and Orchards glyphosate 24 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5370
31 Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia 1992 Cereals, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, and tralkoxydim 35 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass551
32 South AfricaSouth Africa 1993 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, imazamox, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 37 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass192
33 South AfricaSouth Africa 2001 Grapes glyphosate 37 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5093
34 South AfricaSouth Africa 2002 Fruit, and Grapes paraquat 37 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5119
35 South AfricaSouth Africa 2003 Grapes glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, paraquat, and tepraloxydim 37 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5239
36 SpainSpain 1992 Wheat chlorotoluron, and diclofop-methyl 38 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass172
37 SpainSpain 1992 Wheat diclofop-methyl 38 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass173
38 SpainSpain 1992 Orchards simazine 38 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass174
39 SpainSpain 2006 Orchards glyphosate 38 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5332
40 TunisiaTunisia 1996 Cereals diclofop-methyl 78 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5028
41 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia1998 Almonds, and Orchards glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass1034
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