International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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GROUP C2/7 RESISTANT LITTLE SEED CANARY GRASS
(Phalaris minor)


PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)

India, Haryana
INTRODUCTION LITTLE SEED CANARY GRASS
Little seed Canary grass (Phalaris minor) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In India this weed first evolved resistance to Group C2/7 herbicides in 1991 and infests Wheat.   Group C2/7 herbicides are known as PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to isoproturon and they may be cross-resistant to other Group C2/7 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 15, 2000 )

Common NameLittle seed Canary grass
SpeciesPhalaris minor
GroupPSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
Herbicidesisoproturon
LocationIndia, Haryana
Year1991
Situation(s)Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Ram Malik, and Samunder Singh 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Samunder Singh
Rice-Wheat rotation areas of Haryana state, India (Punjab too). Eastern Zone of Haryana (India). Hisar.

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GENERAL

Samunder Singh
Resistance is increasing in area every year. More than 1 m ha area in Haryana and Punjab is infested with isoproturon resistant biotypes. Populations vary in levels of resistance to IPU. Cross-resistance to diclofop-methyl was observed after two applications in the field and hence recommendation of diclofop was withdrawn. Inconsistent results with pendimethalin under field conditions. Lower level of resistance has also been observed with clodinafop-propargyl and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl in the fields.

Population of R biotype is very high (up to two thousand plants/m2 in many places. Resistance is of a metabolic nature, photosynthesis recovers fourth day after treatment.

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MECHANISM

Dutta Mishra
The psbA gene that encodes the D1 protein of the PSII fraction was isolated from both isoproturon resistant and susceptible biotypes by PCR amplification using specific primers designed from psbA gene sequence for amaranthus given in the database. The psbA amplicon sequences for the resistant biotype have been obtained and submitted to the NCBI Gene bank. Sequence homology search reveals that the two nucleotide sequences differ at four positions: 71 (G to A), 88 (T to C), 292 (T to A) and 589 (T to C) resulting in a difference in amino acid sequence in the putative protein at positions 26 (Gly to Ser), 31 (Val to Ala) and 99 (Phe to Leu), respectively. Fourth change did not cause any change in amino acid. Protein structure modeling will reveal the mode of binding of isoproturon with two proteins and may confirm whether modification of binding site is cause of resistance against isoproturon in Phalaris minor.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, and Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Little seed Canary grass biotype with this Little seed Canary grass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group C2/7 resistant Little seed Canary grass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group C2/7 resistant Little seed Canary grass from India please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

RAM MALIK
Ccs Haryana Agricultural University
Department Of Agronomy
207 1/2 Closter Dock Rd
Hisar, 125 004, Haryana
India
SAMUNDER SINGH
Prof. Weed Science
CCS Haryana Agricultural University
Agronomy
CCS HAU Hisar
Hisar, 125004, Haryana
India
Email Samunder Singh
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in India have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Ram Malik, and Samunder Singh for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Little seed Canary grass Globally
(Phalaris minor)
Herbicide Resistant Little seed Canary grass Globally
(Phalaris minor)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Little seed Canary grass Globally
(Phalaris minor)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2012 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl 1 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass7838
2 IndiaIndia 1991 Wheat isoproturon 21 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass222
3 IndiaIndia 1994 Wheat diclofop-methyl, and pinoxaden 21 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass7815
4 IndiaIndia 2006 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, pyroxsulam, and sulfosulfuron 21 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5324
5 IndiaIndia 2013 Wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and mesosulfuron-methyl 21 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass7816
6 IranIran 2004 Winter wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, pinoxaden, and tralkoxydim 79 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5377
7 IsraelIsrael 1993 Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 23 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass111
8 MexicoMexico 1996 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, pinoxaden, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 29 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass478
9 PakistanPakistan 2015 Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 86 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass15074
10 South AfricaSouth Africa 1999 Pastures, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, haloxyfop-P-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, propaquizafop, quizalofop-P-tefuryl, and sulfosulfuron 37 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5194
11 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2001 Onions clethodim, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, and sethoxydim 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5163
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