International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
MULTIPLE RESISTANT SARAMOLLAGRASS
(Ischaemum rugosum)


Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)

Venezuela, Portuguesa, Guarico, Cojedes y
INTRODUCTION SARAMOLLAGRASS
Saramollagrass (Ischaemum rugosum) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Venezuela this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 3 herbicide sites of action) in 2004 and infests Rice.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups A/1, B/2, and C2/7.  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to bispyribac-sodium, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, imazapyr, imazethapyr, profoxydim, propanil, and pyribenzoxim and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups A/1, B/2, and C2/7.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Feb 24, 2015 )

Common NameSaramollagrass
SpeciesIschaemum rugosum
GroupACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
Herbicidesbispyribac-sodium, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, imazapyr, imazethapyr, profoxydim, propanil, and pyribenzoxim
LocationVenezuela, Portuguesa, Guarico, Cojedes y
Year2004
Situation(s)Rice
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Aida Ortiz 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

 

ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Saramollagrass biotype with this Saramollagrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group A, B, C2/1, 2, 7 resistant Saramollagrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Saramollagrass from Venezuela please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

AIDA ORTIZ
Professor
Universidad Central De Venezuela
Agronomia
Avenida Universidad. Campus Maracay
Maracay, 2101, Aragua
Venezuela
Email Aida Ortiz
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Venezuela have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Aida Ortiz for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Saramollagrass Globally
(Ischaemum rugosum)
Herbicide Resistant Saramollagrass Globally
(Ischaemum rugosum)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Saramollagrass Globally
(Ischaemum rugosum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ColombiaColombia 2000 Rice fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 10 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
99Ischaemum rugosumSaramollagrass5143
2 MalaysiaMalaysia 1989 Rubber, and Vegetables paraquat 28 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
99Ischaemum rugosumSaramollagrass139
3 VenezuelaVenezuela 2004 Rice bispyribac-sodium, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, imazapyr, imazethapyr, profoxydim, propanil, and pyribenzoxim 80 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
99Ischaemum rugosumSaramollagrass5552
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Thursday, November 23, 2017 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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