International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP C1/5 RESISTANT FRINGED WILLOWHERB
(Epilobium ciliatum)


Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)

Belgium
INTRODUCTION FRINGED WILLOWHERB
Fringed Willowherb (Epilobium ciliatum) is a dicot weed in the Onagraceae family.  In Belgium this weed first evolved resistance to Group C1/5 herbicides in 1980 and infests Nurseries, Orchards, and Roadsides.   Group C1/5 herbicides are known as Photosystem II inhibitors (Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to atrazine, and simazine and they may be cross-resistant to other Group C1/5 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Nov 18, 2000 )

Common NameFringed Willowherb
SpeciesEpilobium ciliatum
GroupPhotosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
Herbicidesatrazine, and simazine
LocationBelgium
Year1980
Situation(s)Nurseries, Orchards, and Roadsides
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Robert Bulcke 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Robert Bulcke
In all 9 provinces of Belgium

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GENERAL

Robert Bulcke
Became resistant to simazine and atrazine. Sharp increase in number of sites identified in the early eighties, decrease since mid-late eighties.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Fringed Willowherb biotype with this Fringed Willowherb biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group C1/5 resistant Fringed Willowherb have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

Triazine resistant weeds often exhibit a lower relative fitness when compared to susceptible biotypes.  The most common mutation conferring triazine resistance (Ser 264 to Gly mutation of the psbA gene) also causes a reduction in CO2 fixation, quantum yield, and seed and biomass production.  There is no record in this database referring specifically to fitness studies on Group C1/5 resistant Fringed Willowherb from Belgium.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

ROBERT BULCKE
University Gent
Lab. Of Herbology - U. G.

Plant Div
635 Capitol St NE, Weed Control Program
Gent, B-9000
Belgium
Email Robert Bulcke

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Belgium have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Robert Bulcke for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Fringed Willowherb Globally
(Epilobium ciliatum)
Herbicide Resistant Fringed Willowherb Globally
(Epilobium ciliatum)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Fringed Willowherb Globally
(Epilobium ciliatum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 BelgiumBelgium 1980 Nurseries, Orchards, and Roadsides atrazine, and simazine 3 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb34
2 BelgiumBelgium 1982 Pears paraquat 3 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb39
3 PolandPoland 1995 Orchards atrazine 33 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb375
4 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1981 Orchards simazine 44 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb363
5 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1989 Hops paraquat 44 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb360
Literature about Similar Cases

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