International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP C1/5 RESISTANT YELLOW FOXTAIL
(Setaria pumila (=S. glauca))


Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)

United States, Maryland
INTRODUCTION YELLOW FOXTAIL
Yellow Foxtail (Setaria pumila (=S. glauca)) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Maryland this weed first evolved resistance to Group C1/5 herbicides in 1984 and infests Corn (maize), and Cropland.   Group C1/5 herbicides are known as Photosystem II inhibitors (Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine and they may be cross-resistant to other Group C1/5 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Nov 20, 2000 )

Common NameYellow Foxtail
SpeciesSetaria pumila (=S. glauca)
GroupPhotosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
Herbicidesatrazine, cyanazine, and simazine
LocationUnited States, Maryland
Year1984
Situation(s)Corn (maize), and Cropland
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Ronald Ritter 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

HISTORY - FIRST CASE

Ronald Ritter
Originally evolved resistance to atrazine but tests have shown that it is cross-resistant to simazine and cyanazine.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, and Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Yellow Foxtail biotype with this Yellow Foxtail biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group C1/5 resistant Yellow Foxtail have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

Triazine resistant weeds often exhibit a lower relative fitness when compared to susceptible biotypes.  The most common mutation conferring triazine resistance (Ser 264 to Gly mutation of the psbA gene) also causes a reduction in CO2 fixation, quantum yield, and seed and biomass production.  There is no record in this database referring specifically to fitness studies on Group C1/5 resistant Yellow Foxtail from Maryland.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

RONALD RITTER
Professor
University Of Maryland
Plant Science and Landscape Architecture
1118 H. J. Patterson Hall
College Park, 20742 , Maryland
United States
Email Ronald Ritter
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Maryland have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Ronald Ritter for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Yellow Foxtail Globally
(Setaria pumila (=S. glauca))
Herbicide Resistant Yellow Foxtail Globally
(Setaria pumila (=S. glauca))
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Herbicide Resistant Yellow Foxtail Globally
(Setaria pumila (=S. glauca))
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Canada (Ontario) CanadaOntario1981 Corn (maize), and Cropland atrazine 7 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
150Setaria pumila (=S. glauca)Yellow Foxtail64
2 FranceFrance 1981 Corn (maize) atrazine 17 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
150Setaria pumila (=S. glauca)Yellow Foxtail469
3 SpainSpain 1987 Corn (maize) atrazine 38 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
150Setaria pumila (=S. glauca)Yellow Foxtail179
4 United States (Maryland) United StatesMaryland1984 Corn (maize), and Cropland atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
150Setaria pumila (=S. glauca)Yellow Foxtail427
5 United States (Minnesota) United StatesMinnesota1997 Soybean imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
150Setaria pumila (=S. glauca)Yellow Foxtail506
Literature about Similar Cases

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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Saturday, December 14, 2019 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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