International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
MULTIPLE RESISTANT LITTLE SEED CANARY GRASS
(Phalaris minor)


Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)

India, Haryana, Punjab
INTRODUCTION LITTLE SEED CANARY GRASS
Little seed Canary grass (Phalaris minor) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In India this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 3 herbicide sites of action) in 2006 and infests Wheat.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups A/1, B/2, and C2/7.  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, pyroxsulam, and sulfosulfuron and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups A/1, B/2, and C2/7.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Jan 13, 2014 )

Common NameLittle seed Canary grass
SpeciesPhalaris minor
GroupACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
Herbicidesclodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, pyroxsulam, and sulfosulfuron
LocationIndia, Haryana, Punjab
Year2006
Situation(s)Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Rajender Chhokar 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Samunder Singh
Phalaris minor resistance is getting serious with full circle of multiple resistances to herbicides of different MOA starting from isoproturon to diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop, clodinafop, sulfosulfuron, pinoxaden and premix of mesosulfuron+iodosulfuron (Atlantis). Both target site and enhanced metabolism are recorded in different populations of Phalaris minor from Haryana. There is no recommended herbicide which can provide effective control of all resistant populations.  PRE (pendimethalin) followed by POE (ACCase/ALS) and tank or premix using metribuzin is providing some relief, but again there is regeneration in plants treated with metribuzin. Pyroxasulfone has been found effective against multiple herbicide resistant populations of P. minor; its field efficacy will depend on its large scale field use after recommendation/availability to the farmers.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Little seed Canary grass biotype with this Little seed Canary grass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group A, B, C2/1, 2, 7 resistant Little seed Canary grass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Little seed Canary grass from India please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

RAJENDER CHHOKAR
Senior Scientist
Directorate of Wheat Research
Resource Management Programme
Aggarsain Marg
Karnal, 132001, Haryana
India
Email Rajender Chhokar

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in India have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Rajender Chhokar for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Little seed Canary grass Globally
(Phalaris minor)
Herbicide Resistant Little seed Canary grass Globally
(Phalaris minor)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Little seed Canary grass Globally
(Phalaris minor)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2012 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl 1 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass7838
2 IndiaIndia 1991 Wheat isoproturon 21 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass222
3 IndiaIndia 1994 Wheat diclofop-methyl, and pinoxaden 21 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass7815
4 IndiaIndia 2006 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, pyroxsulam, and sulfosulfuron 21 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5324
5 IndiaIndia 2013 Wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and mesosulfuron-methyl 21 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass7816
6 IranIran 2004 Winter wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, pinoxaden, and tralkoxydim 79 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5377
7 IsraelIsrael 1993 Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 23 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass111
8 MexicoMexico 1996 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, pinoxaden, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 29 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass478
9 PakistanPakistan 2015 Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 86 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass15074
10 South AfricaSouth Africa 1999 Pastures, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, haloxyfop-P-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, propaquizafop, quizalofop-P-tefuryl, and sulfosulfuron 37 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5194
11 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2001 Onions clethodim, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, and sethoxydim 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5163
Literature about Similar Cases

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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Monday, September 25, 2017 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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