International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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HRAC GROUP 5 (LEGACY C1 C2) RESISTANT GOOSEGRASS
(Eleusine indica)


PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)

United States, Hawaii
INTRODUCTION GOOSEGRASS
Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Hawaii this weed first evolved resistance to Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) herbicides in 2003 and infests Turf.   Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) herbicides are known as PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (Inhbition of Photosynthesis at PSll - Serine 264 Binders ).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to metribuzin and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Mar 10, 2011 )

Common NameGoosegrass
SpeciesEleusine indica
GroupPSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
Herbicidesmetribuzin
LocationUnited States, Hawaii
Year2003
Situation(s)Turf
Contributors - (Alphabetically)James Brosnan 
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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Goosegrass biotype with this Goosegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 5 resistant Goosegrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) resistant Goosegrass from Hawaii please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

JAMES BROSNAN
Associate Professor
University Of Tennessee
Plant Science - Turfgrass Weed Science
212 Plant Biotech Bldg 2431 Joe Johnson Dr.
Knoxville, 37996, Tennessee
United States
Email James Brosnan
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Hawaii have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to James Brosnan for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2012 Corn (maize), Fallow, and Soybean glyphosate 48 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5701
2 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2015 Sugarcane for sugar paraquat 1 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass11024
3 BoliviaBolivia 2005 Rice, Soybean, and Wheat clethodim, cyhalofop-butyl, fluazifop-butyl, and haloxyfop-methyl 4 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5412
4 BoliviaBolivia 2007 Soybean glyphosate 4 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7887
5 BrazilBrazil 2003 Soybean cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, and sethoxydim 5 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5245
6 BrazilBrazil 2016 Corn (maize), Soybean, and Wheat glyphosate 5 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass13039
7 BrazilBrazil 2017 Beans, Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean fenoxaprop-ethyl, glyphosate, and haloxyfop-methyl 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass17112
8 ChinaChina 2010 Unspecified paraquat 9 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5659
9 ChinaChina 2010 Orchards glyphosate 9 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5661
10 ColombiaColombia 2006 Coffee, and Corn (maize) glyphosate 10 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5365
11 ColombiaColombia 2016 Corn (maize) glyphosate, and paraquat 10 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass18177
12 Costa RicaCosta Rica 1989 Industrial sites imazapyr 11 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass73
13 Costa RicaCosta Rica 2010 Pejibaye palm glyphosate 11 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7884
14 IndonesiaIndonesia 2012 Oil Palm Nursery glyphosate, and paraquat 22 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass11020
15 IndonesiaIndonesia 2012 Corn (maize) paraquat 22 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass13034
16 ItalyItaly 2019 Nurseries glyphosate 24 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass18208
17 JapanJapan 2013 Rice Paddy Levee glyphosate 25 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass10998
18 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Cropland, and Vegetables fluazifop-butyl, and propaquizafop 28 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass133
19 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Vegetables paraquat 28 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass140
20 MalaysiaMalaysia 1997 Orchards fluazifop-butyl, and glyphosate 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1125
21 MalaysiaMalaysia 2009 Vegetables glufosinate-ammonium, and paraquat 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
Inhibition of Glutamine Synthetase (H/10)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7873
22 MalaysiaMalaysia 2009 Oil Palm Nursery butroxydim, fluazifop-butyl, glufosinate-ammonium, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, and paraquat 28 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Inhibition of Glutamine Synthetase (H/10)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass9927
23 MexicoMexico 2016 Oranges glyphosate 29 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass18194
24 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1973 Cotton trifluralin 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass258
25 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1974 Cotton, and Soybean trifluralin 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass266
26 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama1987 Cotton trifluralin 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass223
27 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1988 Cotton, Golf courses, and Turf pendimethalin, prodiamine, and trifluralin 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1103
28 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1989 Cotton, and Cropland trifluralin 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass400
29 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia1992 Cotton, Golf courses, and Turf trifluralin 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1043
30 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1994 Cotton pendimethalin, and trifluralin 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass255
31 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida1996 Tomatoes paraquat 45 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5053
32 United States (Hawaii) United StatesHawaii2003 Turf metribuzin 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5533
33 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2010 Cotton glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5503
34 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2011 Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5549
35 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2015 Golf courses oxadiazon 45 Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass15072
36 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia2015 Golf courses oxadiazon 45 Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass15073
37 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama2019 Tomatoes paraquat 45 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass18191
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