International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
HRAC GROUP 1 (LEGACY A) RESISTANT GOOSEGRASS
(Eleusine indica)


Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)

Malaysia
INTRODUCTION BLACKGRASS
Blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Belgium this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 4 herbicide sites of action) in 1996 and infests Cropland, and Vegetables.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups 1 (Legacy A), Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B), PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2), and Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 HRAC Group 3 (Legacy K1).  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to fluazifop-butyl, and propaquizafop and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups 1 (Legacy A), Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B), PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2), and Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 HRAC Group 3 (Legacy K1).

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

If we do not have a picture for this weed, or you can provide a better picture (scan, digital camera etc) please please e-mail it to us.

QUIK STATS (last updated Nov 21, 2000 )

Common NameBlackgrass
SpeciesAlopecurus myosuroides
GroupInhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)

Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)

PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)

Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 HRAC Group 3 (Legacy K1)
Herbicidesfluazifop-butyl, and propaquizafop
LocationBelgium
Year1996
Situation(s)Cropland, and Vegetables
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Kee Fui Kon, Lim Lee, and Jeremy Ngim 
Edit this Case  |  Add New Case of Resistance  |  Add Note

NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Perak, Johor, Tang Kak, Penang, Melaka. Peninsular Malaysia.Growth form of resistant biotype is prostrate while the sensitive is more erect. Resistant biotype showed cross-resistance to sethoxydim, but is sensitive to S-metolachlor, glufosinate and glyphosate. Farmers use S-metolachlor at pre-emergence and non-selective herbicides at pre-planting to control the weed. No further research is continued to establish the mechanism of resistance; metabolic degradation is suspected.

Edit this Note  |  Add New Note
 
GENERAL

Intensive usage of fusilade to control Elusine in vegetables and melons. In Malaysia, the first report of a biotype of goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.) resistant to fluazifop-butyl was in 1989. In these areas, fluazifop has been used at recommended rates two to three times a year for the past four to five years. In 1994, farmers also reported that propaquizafop failed to control goosegrass in a vegetable farm in Alor Setar, Kedah, in areas where fluazifop has been used repeatedly for several years. Drs. Tiw, Kon, Lim, and Comes (1997) of Novartis Malaysia conducted studies to confirm the resistance of a biotype of goosegrass to fluazifop, to determine its cross-resistance to other APPs, and multiple resistance to herbicides of other chemistries. In greenhouse studies, they confirmed a 200-fold tolerance of goosegrass to fluazifop compared with the susceptible biotype collected from another site (Rembau). This biotype is also cross-resistant to other APPs (propaquizafop and clodinafop) at 64x of the use rate and to the cyclohexanedione herbicide sethoxydim at more than 64x of the use rate. The resistant biotype is susceptible to glufosinate, glyphosate, and CGA 77102, indicating alternatives for managing the resistant type together with cultural methods. Compared to the susceptible biotype, the resistant biotype was shorter and more prostrate and tillered profusely but with lesser leaves. K.P. Tiw, K.F. Kon, F.W. Lim and D. Comes. 1997. A biotype of goosegrass cross-resistant to the ‘fops’ and ‘dims’ and its management. Proc. 16th APWSS Conference. pp. 225-228.

Edit this Note  |  Add New Note
 
GENERAL

Leach, G. E., R. C. Kirkwood, and G. Marshall. 1993. The basis of resistance displayed to fluazifop-butyl by biotypes of Eleusine indica. Brighton Crop Protection Conference - Weeds - 1993. 3C-5 pp 201-206. Tiw, K. P., Kon, K. F., Lim, F. W. and Cornes, D. (1997). 16th Asia Pacific Weed Sc. Conference. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Edit this Note  |  Add New Note
 

ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field trials comparing a known susceptible Blackgrass biotype with this Blackgrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 1, 2, 5, 3 resistant Blackgrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Blackgrass from Belgium please update the database.
 
Edit Case  |  Add Note  |  Add Article  |  Add New Case  |  Help

CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

KEE FUI KON
Syngenta Crop Protection, Region Asia-Pacific
Region Asia-Pacific
324 S Monroe St
Shah Alam, 40000
Malaysia
Email Kee Fui Kon
LIM LEE
Ccmb Agrochemicals Research Centre
Region Asia-Pacific
22 Peace Cir
Melaka, 75990, Melaka
Malaysia
Email Lim Lee
JEREMY NGIM
Ccm Bioscience Research Centre (zeneca)
Region Asia-Pacific
Crop Science Department
Box 7620, 4402 Williams Hall
Melaka, 75990, Melaka
Malaysia
Email Jeremy Ngim

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Belgium have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Kee Fui Kon, Lim Lee, and Jeremy Ngim for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2012 Corn (maize), Fallow, and Soybean glyphosate 48 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5701
2 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2015 Sugarcane for sugar paraquat 1 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass11024
3 BoliviaBolivia 2005 Rice, Soybean, and Wheat clethodim, cyhalofop-butyl, fluazifop-butyl, and haloxyfop-methyl 4 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5412
4 BoliviaBolivia 2007 Soybean glyphosate 4 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7887
5 BrazilBrazil 2003 Soybean cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, and sethoxydim 5 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5245
6 BrazilBrazil 2016 Corn (maize), Soybean, and Wheat glyphosate 5 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass13039
7 BrazilBrazil 2017 Beans, Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean fenoxaprop-ethyl, glyphosate, and haloxyfop-methyl 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass17112
8 ChinaChina 2010 Unspecified paraquat 9 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5659
9 ChinaChina 2010 Orchards glyphosate 9 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5661
10 ColombiaColombia 2006 Coffee, and Corn (maize) glyphosate 10 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5365
11 ColombiaColombia 2016 Corn (maize) glyphosate, and paraquat 10 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass18177
12 Costa RicaCosta Rica 1989 Industrial sites imazapyr 11 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass73
13 Costa RicaCosta Rica 2010 Pejibaye palm glyphosate 11 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7884
14 IndonesiaIndonesia 2012 Oil Palm Nursery glyphosate, and paraquat 22 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass11020
15 IndonesiaIndonesia 2012 Corn (maize) paraquat 22 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass13034
16 ItalyItaly 2019 Nurseries glyphosate 24 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass18208
17 JapanJapan 2013 Rice Paddy Levee glyphosate 25 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass10998
18 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Cropland, and Vegetables fluazifop-butyl, and propaquizafop 28 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass133
19 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Vegetables paraquat 28 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass140
20 MalaysiaMalaysia 1997 Orchards fluazifop-butyl, and glyphosate 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1125
21 MalaysiaMalaysia 2009 Vegetables glufosinate-ammonium, and paraquat 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
Inhibition of Glutamine Synthetase (H/10)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7873
22 MalaysiaMalaysia 2009 Oil Palm Nursery butroxydim, fluazifop-butyl, glufosinate-ammonium, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, and paraquat 28 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Inhibition of Glutamine Synthetase (H/10)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass9927
23 MexicoMexico 2016 Oranges glyphosate 29 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass18194
24 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1973 Cotton trifluralin 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass258
25 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1974 Cotton, and Soybean trifluralin 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass266
26 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama1987 Cotton trifluralin 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass223
27 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1988 Cotton, Golf courses, and Turf pendimethalin, prodiamine, and trifluralin 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1103
28 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1989 Cotton, and Cropland trifluralin 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass400
29 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia1992 Cotton, Golf courses, and Turf trifluralin 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1043
30 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1994 Cotton pendimethalin, and trifluralin 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass255
31 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida1996 Tomatoes paraquat 45 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5053
32 United States (Hawaii) United StatesHawaii2003 Turf metribuzin 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5533
33 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2010 Cotton glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5503
34 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2011 Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5549
35 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2015 Golf courses oxadiazon 45 Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass15072
36 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia2015 Golf courses oxadiazon 45 Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass15073
37 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama2019 Tomatoes paraquat 45 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass18191
Literature about Similar Cases

Page size:
select
Page: of 20
Items 1 to 5 of 99

Page size:
select
Page: of 20
Items 1 to 5 of 99
PERMISSION MUST BE OBTAINED FIRST if you intend to base a significant portion of a scientific paper on data derived from this site.
Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Thursday, June 17, 2021 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
Copyright © 1993- 2021 WeedScience.org All rights reserved. Fair use of this material is encouraged. Proper citation is requested.