International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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MULTIPLE RESISTANT GOOSEGRASS
(Eleusine indica)


Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)

Malaysia, Jerantut
INTRODUCTION GOOSEGRASS
Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Malaysia this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 4 herbicide sites of action) in 2009 and infests Oil Palm Nursery.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups A/1, D/22, G/9, and H/10.  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to butroxydim, fluazifop-P-butyl, glufosinate-ammonium, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, and paraquat and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups A/1, D/22, G/9, and H/10.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Jan 20, 2015 )

Common NameGoosegrass
SpeciesEleusine indica
GroupACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
Herbicidesbutroxydim, fluazifop-P-butyl, glufosinate-ammonium, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, and paraquat
LocationMalaysia, Jerantut
Year2009
Situation(s)Oil Palm Nursery
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Baki Bakar, and Stephen Powles 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

JALALUDIN A, YU Q & POWLES SB (2015). Multiple resistance across glufosinate, glyphosate, paraquat and ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in an Eleusine indica population. Weed Research 55, 82–89.

An Eleusine indica population was previously reported as the first global case of field-evolved glufosinate resistance. This study re-examines glufosinate resistance and investigates multiple resistance to other herbicides in the population. Dose–response experiments with glufosinate showed that the resistant population is 5-fold and 14-fold resistant relative to the susceptible population, based on GR50 and LD50 R/S ratio respectively. The selected glufosinate-resistant subpopulation also displayed a high-level resistance to glyphosate, with the respective GR50 and LD50 R/S ratios being 12- and 144-fold. In addition, the subpopulation also displayed a level of resistance to paraquat and ACCase-inhibiting herbicides fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop-P-methyl and butroxydim. ACCase gene sequencing revealed that the Trp-2027-Cys mutation is likely responsible for resistance to the ACCase inhibitors examined. Here, we confirm glufosinate resistance and importantly, we find very high-level glyphosate resistance, as well as resistance to paraquat and ACCase-inhibiting herbicides. This is the first confirmed report of a weed species that evolved multiple resistance across all the three non-selective global herbicides, glufosinate, glyphosate and paraquat.



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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Goosegrass biotype with this Goosegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group A, D, G, H/1, 22, 9, 10 resistant Goosegrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of multiple resistant Goosegrass from Malaysia indicate that resistance is due to unknown, and an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Goosegrass from Malaysia please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

BAKI BAKAR
Senior Research Fellow
Institute of Biological Sciences, University Of Malaya
Dept. Of Botany
Faculty of Science Building
Kuala Lumpur, 50603 , Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
Email Baki Bakar
Web   : Web Site Link
STEPHEN POWLES
Professor And Research Director
University Of Western Australia
School Of Plant Biology
2276 Dahlk Circle
Crawley, 6009, Western Australia
Australia
Email Stephen Powles
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Malaysia have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Baki Bakar, and Stephen Powles for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2012 Corn (maize), Fallow, and Soybean glyphosate 48 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5701
2 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2015 Sugarcane for sugar paraquat 1 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass11024
3 BoliviaBolivia 2005 Rice, Soybean, and Wheat clethodim, cyhalofop-butyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, and haloxyfop-methyl 4 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5412
4 BoliviaBolivia 2007 Soybean glyphosate 4 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7887
5 BrazilBrazil 2003 Soybean cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and sethoxydim 5 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5245
6 BrazilBrazil 2016 Corn (maize), Soybean, and Wheat glyphosate 5 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass13039
7 ChinaChina 2010 Unspecified paraquat 9 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5659
8 ChinaChina 2010 Orchards glyphosate 9 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5661
9 ColombiaColombia 2006 Coffee glyphosate 10 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5365
10 Costa RicaCosta Rica 1989 Industrial sites imazapyr 11 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass73
11 Costa RicaCosta Rica 2010 Pejibaye palm glyphosate 11 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7884
12 IndonesiaIndonesia 2012 Oil Palm Nursery glyphosate, and paraquat 22 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass11020
13 IndonesiaIndonesia 2012 Corn (maize) paraquat 22 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass13034
14 JapanJapan 2013 Rice Paddy Levee glyphosate 25 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass10998
15 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Cropland, and Vegetables fluazifop-P-butyl, and propaquizafop 28 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass133
16 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Vegetables paraquat 28 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass140
17 MalaysiaMalaysia 1997 Orchards fluazifop-P-butyl, and glyphosate 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1125
18 MalaysiaMalaysia 2009 Vegetables glufosinate-ammonium, and paraquat 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7873
19 MalaysiaMalaysia 2009 Oil Palm Nursery butroxydim, fluazifop-P-butyl, glufosinate-ammonium, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, and paraquat 28 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass9927
20 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1973 Cotton trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass258
21 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1974 Cotton, and Soybean trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass266
22 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama1987 Cotton trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass223
23 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1988 Cotton, Golf courses, and Turf pendimethalin, prodiamine, and trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1103
24 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1989 Cotton, and Cropland trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass400
25 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia1992 Cotton, Golf courses, and Turf trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1043
26 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1994 Cotton pendimethalin, and trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass255
27 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida1996 Tomatoes paraquat 45 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5053
28 United States (Hawaii) United StatesHawaii2003 Turf metribuzin 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5533
29 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2010 Cotton glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5503
30 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2011 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5549
31 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2015 Golf courses oxadiazon 45 PPO inhibitors (E/14)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass15072
32 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia2015 Golf courses oxadiazon 45 PPO inhibitors (E/14)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass15073
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