International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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(Eleusine indica)

EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)

Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Argentina this weed first evolved resistance to Group G/9 herbicides in 2012 and infests Corn (maize), Fallow, and Soybean.   Group G/9 herbicides are known as EPSP synthase inhibitors (Inhibition of EPSP synthase).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to glyphosate and they may be cross-resistant to other Group G/9 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Jan 20, 2015 )

Common NameGoosegrass
SpeciesEleusine indica
GroupEPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Situation(s)Corn (maize), Fallow, and Soybean
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Marcelo De La Vega, Eduardo Puricelli, Federico Exequiel Stegmayer, and Diego Ustarroz 
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Martín Marzetti


  Martín Marzetti1, Matías Bertolotto2, Pablo Lopez Anido3, Mauro Passarini4, Alejandro Iturbe5 1AAPRESID, Dorrego 1639, Rosario. 2AAPRESID, Dorrego 1639, Rosario. 3AAPRESID, Dorrego 1639, Rosario. 4INDEAR, Ocampo 210 bis, Rosario. 5INDEAR, Ocampo 210 bis, Rosario.

SUMMARY Resistant weeds are a growing problem in productive systems around the world. In 2014 a Digitaria insularis biotype suspected of glyphosate resistance was identified in La Ribera (south of Santa Fe Province, Argentina). Level of glyphosate resistance was evaluated through a dose-response experiment of the suspected biotype and a susceptible D. Insularis biotype. The level of glyphosate resistance of the suspected biotype was higher than the ones registered in other countries in populations of this species. 

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Laboratory trials to determine Eleusine indica resistance in Tucumán (Argentina)

Experiments were conducted at the University of Tucumán (Lat. 26° 50’ S; Long 65º 16' O) Argentina in 2012 to compare a known susceptible Eleusine indica biotype with a new biotype to confirm resistance. Seven different rates (0; 1/16 X; 1/8 X; ¼ X; ½ X; X; 2X), being X 750 g a.e. glyphosate/ha. Four replicates (pots with 10 plants each) were used.

Glyphosate applications were made with CO2 backpack sprayer. Spray solutions were delivered through 8003 flat-fan nozzles at 187 L ha-1 and a pressure of 270 kPa.

Biomass at 21 days after application was determined

The relationships between glyphosate rate and biomass. For the susceptible and the resistance biotypes fitted to a log-logistic model (Seefeldt et al., 1995). The glyphosate rate causing the 50% reduction in biomass for the susceptible biotype was 375 g a.e./ha and for the resistant biotype 750 a.e./ha

Results indicate that Resistance Index is 1.98.

Federico Stegmayer

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Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Goosegrass biotype with this Goosegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.

Genetic studies on Group G/9 resistant Goosegrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group G/9 resistant Goosegrass from Argentina please update the database.
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Facultad Agronomía y Zootecnia - Universidad Nacional de Tucumán
Sanidad Vegetal
Av Kirchner 1900
San Miguel de Tucumán, 4000, Tucumán
Email Marcelo De La Vega
University of Rosario
Crop Protection
Campo Villarino CC14 2125 Zavalla
Zavalla, 2125, Tucumán
Email Eduardo Puricelli
Ph Student
Nacional University of Tucumán Argentina
Plant Health
Florentino Ameghino Countless
El Manantial
San Miguel de Tucumán, 4000, Tucumán
Email Federico Exequiel Stegmayer
Research Associate
Sección Malezas
Ruta 9 Km 636 Manfredi
Córdoba Argentina.
Manfredi, 5688, Córdoba
Email Diego Ustarroz


The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Argentina have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Marcelo De La Vega, Eduardo Puricelli, Federico Exequiel Stegmayer, and Diego Ustarroz for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2012 Corn (maize), Fallow, and Soybean glyphosate 48 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5701
2 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2015 Sugarcane for sugar paraquat 1 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass11024
3 BoliviaBolivia 2005 Rice, Soybean, and Wheat clethodim, cyhalofop-butyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, and haloxyfop-methyl 4 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5412
4 BoliviaBolivia 2007 Soybean glyphosate 4 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7887
5 BrazilBrazil 2003 Soybean cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and sethoxydim 5 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5245
6 BrazilBrazil 2016 Corn (maize), Soybean, and Wheat glyphosate 5 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass13039
7 ChinaChina 2010 Unspecified paraquat 9 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5659
8 ChinaChina 2010 Unspecified glyphosate 9 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5661
9 ColombiaColombia 2006 Coffee glyphosate 10 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5365
10 Costa RicaCosta Rica 1989 Industrial sites imazapyr 11 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass73
11 Costa RicaCosta Rica 2010 Pejibaye palm glyphosate 11 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7884
12 IndonesiaIndonesia 2012 Oil Palm Nursery glyphosate, and paraquat 22 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass11020
13 IndonesiaIndonesia 2012 Corn (maize) paraquat 22 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass13034
14 JapanJapan 2013 Rice Paddy Levee glyphosate 25 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass10998
15 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Cropland, and Vegetables fluazifop-P-butyl, and propaquizafop 28 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass133
16 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Vegetables paraquat 28 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass140
17 MalaysiaMalaysia 1997 Orchards fluazifop-P-butyl, and glyphosate 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1125
18 MalaysiaMalaysia 2009 Vegetables glufosinate-ammonium, and paraquat 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7873
19 MalaysiaMalaysia 2009 Oil Palm Nursery butroxydim, fluazifop-P-butyl, glufosinate-ammonium, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, and paraquat 28 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass9927
20 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1973 Cotton trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass258
21 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1974 Cotton, and Soybean trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass266
22 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama1987 Cotton trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass223
23 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1988 Cotton, Golf courses, and Turf pendimethalin, prodiamine, and trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1103
24 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1989 Cotton, and Cropland trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass400
25 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia1992 Cotton, Golf courses, and Turf trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1043
26 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1994 Cotton pendimethalin, and trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass255
27 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida1996 Tomatoes paraquat 45 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5053
28 United States (Hawaii) United StatesHawaii2003 Turf metribuzin 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5533
29 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2010 Cotton glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5503
30 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2011 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5549
Literature about Similar Cases

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