International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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(Eleusine indica)

ACCase inhibitors (A/1)

Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Malaysia this weed first evolved resistance to Group A/1 herbicides in 1990 and infests Cropland, and Vegetables.   Group A/1 herbicides are known as ACCase inhibitors (Inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to fluazifop-P-butyl, and propaquizafop and they may be cross-resistant to other Group A/1 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 15, 2000 )

Common NameGoosegrass
SpeciesEleusine indica
GroupACCase inhibitors (A/1)
Herbicidesfluazifop-P-butyl, and propaquizafop
Situation(s)Cropland, and Vegetables
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Kee Fui Kon, Lim Lee, and Jeremy Ngim 
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Perak, Johor, Tang Kak, Penang, Melaka. Peninsular Malaysia.Growth form of resistant biotype is prostrate while the sensitive is more erect. Resistant biotype showed cross-resistance to sethoxydim, but is sensitive to S-metolachlor, glufosinate and glyphosate. Farmers use S-metolachlor at pre-emergence and non-selective herbicides at pre-planting to control the weed. No further research is continued to establish the mechanism of resistance; metabolic degradation is suspected.

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Intensive usage of fusilade to control Elusine in vegetables and melons. In Malaysia, the first report of a biotype of goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.) resistant to fluazifop-butyl was in 1989. In these areas, fluazifop has been used at recommended rates two to three times a year for the past four to five years. In 1994, farmers also reported that propaquizafop failed to control goosegrass in a vegetable farm in Alor Setar, Kedah, in areas where fluazifop has been used repeatedly for several years. Drs. Tiw, Kon, Lim, and Comes (1997) of Novartis Malaysia conducted studies to confirm the resistance of a biotype of goosegrass to fluazifop, to determine its cross-resistance to other APPs, and multiple resistance to herbicides of other chemistries. In greenhouse studies, they confirmed a 200-fold tolerance of goosegrass to fluazifop compared with the susceptible biotype collected from another site (Rembau). This biotype is also cross-resistant to other APPs (propaquizafop and clodinafop) at 64x of the use rate and to the cyclohexanedione herbicide sethoxydim at more than 64x of the use rate. The resistant biotype is susceptible to glufosinate, glyphosate, and CGA 77102, indicating alternatives for managing the resistant type together with cultural methods. Compared to the susceptible biotype, the resistant biotype was shorter and more prostrate and tillered profusely but with lesser leaves. K.P. Tiw, K.F. Kon, F.W. Lim and D. Comes. 1997. A biotype of goosegrass cross-resistant to the ‘fops’ and ‘dims’ and its management. Proc. 16th APWSS Conference. pp. 225-228.

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Leach, G. E., R. C. Kirkwood, and G. Marshall. 1993. The basis of resistance displayed to fluazifop-butyl by biotypes of Eleusine indica. Brighton Crop Protection Conference - Weeds - 1993. 3C-5 pp 201-206. Tiw, K. P., Kon, K. F., Lim, F. W. and Cornes, D. (1997). 16th Asia Pacific Weed Sc. Conference. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

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Confirmation Tests

Field trials comparing a known susceptible Goosegrass biotype with this Goosegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.

Genetic studies on Group A/1 resistant Goosegrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group A/1 resistant Goosegrass from Malaysia please update the database.
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Syngenta Crop Protection, Region Asia-Pacific
Region Asia-Pacific
324 S Monroe St
Shah Alam, 40000
Email Kee Fui Kon
Ccmb Agrochemicals Research Centre
Region Asia-Pacific
22 Peace Cir
Melaka, 75990, Melaka
Email Lim Lee
Ccm Bioscience Research Centre (zeneca)
Region Asia-Pacific
Crop Science Department
Box 7620, 4402 Williams Hall
Melaka, 75990, Melaka
Email Jeremy Ngim


The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Malaysia have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Kee Fui Kon, Lim Lee, and Jeremy Ngim for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2012 Corn (maize), Fallow, and Soybean glyphosate 48 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5701
2 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2015 Sugarcane for sugar paraquat 1 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass11024
3 BoliviaBolivia 2005 Rice, Soybean, and Wheat clethodim, cyhalofop-butyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, and haloxyfop-methyl 4 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5412
4 BoliviaBolivia 2007 Soybean glyphosate 4 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7887
5 BrazilBrazil 2003 Soybean cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and sethoxydim 5 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5245
6 BrazilBrazil 2016 Corn (maize), Soybean, and Wheat glyphosate 5 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass13039
7 ChinaChina 2010 Unspecified paraquat 9 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5659
8 ChinaChina 2010 Orchards glyphosate 9 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5661
9 ColombiaColombia 2006 Coffee glyphosate 10 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5365
10 Costa RicaCosta Rica 1989 Industrial sites imazapyr 11 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass73
11 Costa RicaCosta Rica 2010 Pejibaye palm glyphosate 11 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7884
12 IndonesiaIndonesia 2012 Oil Palm Nursery glyphosate, and paraquat 22 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass11020
13 IndonesiaIndonesia 2012 Corn (maize) paraquat 22 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass13034
14 JapanJapan 2013 Rice Paddy Levee glyphosate 25 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass10998
15 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Cropland, and Vegetables fluazifop-P-butyl, and propaquizafop 28 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass133
16 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Vegetables paraquat 28 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass140
17 MalaysiaMalaysia 1997 Orchards fluazifop-P-butyl, and glyphosate 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1125
18 MalaysiaMalaysia 2009 Vegetables glufosinate-ammonium, and paraquat 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7873
19 MalaysiaMalaysia 2009 Oil Palm Nursery butroxydim, fluazifop-P-butyl, glufosinate-ammonium, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, and paraquat 28 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass9927
20 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1973 Cotton trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass258
21 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1974 Cotton, and Soybean trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass266
22 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama1987 Cotton trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass223
23 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1988 Cotton, Golf courses, and Turf pendimethalin, prodiamine, and trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1103
24 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1989 Cotton, and Cropland trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass400
25 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia1992 Cotton, Golf courses, and Turf trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1043
26 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1994 Cotton pendimethalin, and trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass255
27 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida1996 Tomatoes paraquat 45 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5053
28 United States (Hawaii) United StatesHawaii2003 Turf metribuzin 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5533
29 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2010 Cotton glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5503
30 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2011 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5549
Literature about Similar Cases

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