International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP D/22 RESISTANT BLACK NIGHTSHADE
(Solanum nigrum)


PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)

Australia, Queensland
INTRODUCTION BLACK NIGHTSHADE
Black Nightshade (Solanum nigrum) is a dicot weed in the Solanaceae family.  In Queensland this weed first evolved resistance to Group D/22 herbicides in 2015 and infests Sugarcane for sugar, and Vegetables.   Group D/22 herbicides are known as PSI Electron Diverter (Photosystem-I-electron diversion).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to paraquat and they may be cross-resistant to other Group D/22 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Feb 08, 2016 )

Common NameBlack Nightshade
SpeciesSolanum nigrum
GroupPSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
Herbicidesparaquat
LocationAustralia, Queensland
Year2015
Situation(s)Sugarcane for sugar, and Vegetables
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Christopher Preston 
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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Black Nightshade biotype with this Black Nightshade biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group D/22 resistant Black Nightshade have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group D/22 resistant Black Nightshade from Queensland please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

CHRISTOPHER PRESTON
University Of Adelaide - Waite Campus
Crc For Australian Weed Management And School Of Agriculture
Box 2146
Adelaide, 5064, South Australia
Australia
Email Christopher Preston

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Queensland have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Christopher Preston for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum nigrum)
Herbicide Resistant Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum nigrum)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum nigrum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2015 Sugarcane for sugar, and Vegetables paraquat 1 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade11025
2 BelgiumBelgium 1981 Corn (maize), and Roadsides atrazine 3 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade31
3 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 1999 Corn (maize) atrazine 12 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade5051
4 FranceFrance 1979 Cropland atrazine 17 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade472
5 GermanyGermany 1980 Corn (maize) atrazine 18 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade439
6 ItalyItaly 1978 Corn (maize), and Cropland atrazine 24 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade113
7 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Vegetables paraquat 28 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade135
8 NetherlandsNetherlands 1981 Corn (maize) atrazine 43 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade218
9 New ZealandNew Zealand 1999 Corn (maize) atrazine, cyanazine, prometryn, and terbuthylazine 30 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade5106
10 New ZealandNew Zealand 2009 Sweet potato paraquat 30 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade5731
11 PolandPoland 1995 Orchards atrazine 33 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade376
12 SpainSpain 1987 Corn (maize) atrazine 38 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade180
13 SwitzerlandSwitzerland 1983 Cropland, and Pastures atrazine 41 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade207
14 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1983 Corn (maize) simazine 44 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade364
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