International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
HRAC GROUP 5 (LEGACY C1 C2) RESISTANT BLACK NIGHTSHADE
(Solanum nigrum)


PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)

Czech Republic
INTRODUCTION BLACKGRASS
Blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Belgium this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 4 herbicide sites of action) in 1996 and infests Corn (maize).  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups 1 (Legacy A), Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B), PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2), and Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 HRAC Group 3 (Legacy K1).  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to atrazine and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups 1 (Legacy A), Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B), PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2), and Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 HRAC Group 3 (Legacy K1).

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Nov 21, 2000 )

Common NameBlackgrass
SpeciesAlopecurus myosuroides
GroupInhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)

Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)

PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)

Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 HRAC Group 3 (Legacy K1)
Herbicidesatrazine
LocationBelgium
Year1996
Situation(s)Corn (maize)
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Jan Mikulka 
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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Blackgrass biotype with this Blackgrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 1, 2, 5, 3 resistant Blackgrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of multiple resistant Blackgrass from Belgium indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Blackgrass from Belgium please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

JAN MIKULKA
Institute Of Plant Protection
Research Inst. Of Crop Protection
370 Olsen Blvd
Heep Center, Room 339, Department of Soil& Crop Sciences
Prague, 6 161 06
Czech Republic
Email Jan Mikulka

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Belgium have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Jan Mikulka for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum nigrum)
Herbicide Resistant Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum nigrum)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum nigrum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2015 Sugarcane for sugar, and Vegetables paraquat 1 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade11025
2 BelgiumBelgium 1981 Corn (maize), and Roadsides atrazine 3 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade31
3 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 1999 Corn (maize) atrazine 12 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade5051
4 FranceFrance 1979 Cropland atrazine 17 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade472
5 GermanyGermany 1980 Corn (maize) atrazine 18 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade439
6 ItalyItaly 1978 Corn (maize), and Cropland atrazine 24 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade113
7 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Vegetables paraquat 28 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade135
8 NetherlandsNetherlands 1981 Corn (maize) atrazine 43 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade218
9 New ZealandNew Zealand 1999 Corn (maize) atrazine, cyanazine, prometryne, and terbuthylazine 30 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade5106
10 New ZealandNew Zealand 2009 Sweet potato paraquat 30 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade5731
11 PolandPoland 1995 Orchards atrazine 33 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade376
12 SpainSpain 1987 Corn (maize) atrazine 38 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade180
13 SwitzerlandSwitzerland 1983 Cropland, and Pastures atrazine 41 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade207
14 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1983 Corn (maize) simazine 44 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade364
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