International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
MULTIPLE RESISTANT ANNUAL BLUEGRASS
(Poa annua)


Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)

United States, Oregon
INTRODUCTION ANNUAL BLUEGRASS
Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Oregon this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 2 herbicide sites of action) in 2000 and infests Grass seed.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups C1/5, and C2/7.  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to diuron, and metribuzin and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups C1/5, and C2/7.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Nov 19, 2019 )

Common NameAnnual Bluegrass
SpeciesPoa annua
GroupPhotosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
Herbicidesdiuron, and metribuzin
LocationUnited States, Oregon
Year2000
Situation(s)Grass seed
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Lemma Mengistu, and George Mueuller-Warrant 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

MECHANISM

psbA Mutation (valine219 to isoleucine) in Poa annua resistant to metribuzin and diuron.
Lemma W Mengistu  George W Mueller‐Warrant  Aaron Liston  ­Reed E Barker

First published: 25 February 2000 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1526-4998(200003)56:3<209::AID-PS117>3.0.CO;2-8

Abstract
The herbicide‐binding region of the chloroplast psbA gene from a total of 20 biotypes of Poa annua L resistant and susceptible to metribuzin and diuron was selectively amplified using PCR. Sequence analysis of the fragment from six herbicide‐resistant biotypes of P annua exhibited a substitution from valine to isoleucine at position 219 of the D1 protein encoded by the psbA gene. This is the same mutation as reported for Chlamydomonas and Synechococcus through site‐directed mutagenesis and in cell cultures of Chenopodium rubrum L. To our knowledge this is the first report of a higher plant exhibiting resistance in the field to photosystem II inhibitors due to a psbA mutation other than at position 264. The existence of additional biotypes of P annua resistant to diuron or metribuzin but lacking mutation in the herbicide‐binding region indicates that resistance to these herbicides can also be attained by other mechanisms.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Annual Bluegrass biotype with this Annual Bluegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group C1, C2/5, 7 resistant Annual Bluegrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of multiple resistant Annual Bluegrass from Oregon indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

Triazine resistant weeds often exhibit a lower relative fitness when compared to susceptible biotypes.  The most common mutation conferring triazine resistance (Ser 264 to Gly mutation of the psbA gene) also causes a reduction in CO2 fixation, quantum yield, and seed and biomass production.  There is no record in this database referring specifically to fitness studies on multiple resistant Annual Bluegrass from Oregon.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

LEMMA MENGISTU
Department Of Plant Sciences
North Dakota State University
2237 Haden Road
Fargo, 58105, North Dakota
United States
Email Lemma Mengistu
GEORGE MUEULLER-WARRANT
Research Agronomist
USDA-ARS
Department of Crop and Soil Science
Crop and Soil Science Bldg.
Corvallis, 97331, Oregon
United States
Email George Mueuller-Warrant
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Oregon have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Lemma Mengistu, and George Mueuller-Warrant for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Annual Bluegrass Globally
(Poa annua)
Herbicide Resistant Annual Bluegrass Globally
(Poa annua)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Annual Bluegrass Globally
(Poa annua)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2009 Golf courses, and Turf endothall 1 Unknown (Z/27)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5513
2 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16084
3 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses simazine 1 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16085
4 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses endothall 1 Unknown (Z/27)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16086
5 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses propyzamide = pronamide 1 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16087
6 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and rimsulfuron 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16088
7 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2017 Golf courses bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and rimsulfuron 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16089
8 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2017 Golf courses simazine 1 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16090
9 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2017 Golf courses glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16091
10 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2017 Golf courses propyzamide = pronamide 1 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16092
11 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and rimsulfuron 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16093
12 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses simazine 1 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16094
13 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16095
14 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses endothall 1 Unknown (Z/27)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16096
15 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses propyzamide = pronamide 1 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16097
16 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses bispyribac-sodium, endothall, foramsulfuron, glyphosate, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, propyzamide = pronamide, rimsulfuron, and simazine 1 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
Unknown (Z/27)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16098
17 BelgiumBelgium 1981 Nurseries, Orchards, and Roadsides simazine 3 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass33
18 BelgiumBelgium 1983 Orchards amitrole 3 Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass38
19 BelgiumBelgium 1993 Hops paraquat 3 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass36
20 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 1988 Orchards, and Railways atrazine, cyanazine, prometryn, and terbutryn 12 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass85
21 FranceFrance 1978 Orchards atrazine 17 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass464
22 FranceFrance 2015 Wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and mesosulfuron-methyl 17 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass18180
23 GermanyGermany 1980 Orchards atrazine 18 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass449
24 JapanJapan 1982 Golf courses, and Turf simazine 25 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass117
25 NetherlandsNetherlands 1981 Orchards simazine 43 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass219
26 NorwayNorway 1996 Nurseries simazine 31 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass388
27 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1981 Hops paraquat 44 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass359
28 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1981 Orchards simazine 44 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass366
29 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama1980 Pastures simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1166
30 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1994 Grass seed ethofumesate 45 Lipid Inhibitors (N/16)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass334
31 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1994 Grass seed diuron 45 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass336
32 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1994 Grass seed atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass338
33 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1995 Golf courses, and Turf simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1060
34 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1996 Turf atrazine, and simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1187
35 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1997 Golf courses, and Turf pendimethalin, and prodiamine 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1165
36 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon2000 Grass seed diuron, and metribuzin 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass18181
37 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia2001 Golf courses, and Turf simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5162
38 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2007 Golf courses, and Turf dithiopyr, pendimethalin, and prodiamine 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5645
39 United States (Missouri) United StatesMissouri2010 Turf glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5495
40 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2011 Golf courses, and Turf glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5596
41 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama2012 Turf bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, imazaquin, and trifloxysulfuron-sodium 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5644
42 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama2012 Turf dithiopyr, pendimethalin, and prodiamine 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5695
43 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2013 Golf courses, and Turf foramsulfuron, simazine, and trifloxysulfuron-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass6765
44 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2013 Almonds glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass7805
45 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2014 Golf courses foramsulfuron 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass10982
Literature about Similar Cases

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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Tuesday, December 10, 2019 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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