International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
HRAC GROUP 2 (LEGACY B) RESISTANT RUSSIAN-THISTLE
(Salsola tragus)


Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)

United States, Oregon
INTRODUCTION BLACKGRASS
Blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Belgium this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 4 herbicide sites of action) in 1996 and infests Wheat.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups 1 (Legacy A), Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B), PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2), and Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 HRAC Group 3 (Legacy K1).  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, and triasulfuron and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups 1 (Legacy A), Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B), PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2), and Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 HRAC Group 3 (Legacy K1).

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Nov 21, 2000 )

Common NameBlackgrass
SpeciesAlopecurus myosuroides
GroupInhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)

Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)

PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)

Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 HRAC Group 3 (Legacy K1)
Herbicideschlorsulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, and triasulfuron
LocationBelgium
Year1996
Situation(s)Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Daniel Ball 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Daniel Ball
Umatilla, Morrow, Gilliam, Sherman

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GENERAL

Daniel Ball
Resistance was confirmed in 1993 in a cooperative survey conducted by Oregon State University and DuPont Inc. Live plant samples were sent to an independent testing facility and the presence of an altered ALS enzyme confirmed. Remains susceptible to 2,4-D, dicamba and glyphosate.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Blackgrass biotype with this Blackgrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 1, 2, 5, 3 resistant Blackgrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of multiple resistant Blackgrass from Belgium indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Blackgrass from Belgium please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

DANIEL BALL
Professor Of Weed Science
Oregon State University
Columbia Basin Agricultural Research Center
48037 Tubbs Ranch Road P. O. Box 370
Pendleton, 97801, Oregon
United States
Email Daniel Ball
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Belgium have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Daniel Ball for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Russian-thistle Globally
(Salsola tragus)
Herbicide Resistant Russian-thistle Globally
(Salsola tragus)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Russian-thistle Globally
(Salsola tragus)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2019 Soybean glyphosate 48 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
147Salsola tragusRussian-thistle19218
2 Canada (Saskatchewan) CanadaSaskatchewan1989 Wheat chlorsulfuron 7 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
147Salsola tragusRussian-thistle5067
3 Canada (Alberta) CanadaAlberta2007 Spring Barley, and Wheat thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 7 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
147Salsola tragusRussian-thistle7831
4 United States (Washington) United StatesWashington1987 Wheat chlorsulfuron 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
147Salsola tragusRussian-thistle231
5 United States (Montana) United StatesMontana1987 Cropland, and Wheat chlorsulfuron 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
147Salsola tragusRussian-thistle411
6 United States (Idaho) United StatesIdaho1990 Wheat chlorsulfuron 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
147Salsola tragusRussian-thistle512
7 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1993 Wheat chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, and triasulfuron 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
147Salsola tragusRussian-thistle1173
8 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia1994 Roadsides chlorsulfuron, and sulfometuron-methyl 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
147Salsola tragusRussian-thistle1036
9 United States (Montana) United StatesMontana2015 Fallow, and Wheat glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
147Salsola tragusRussian-thistle12032
10 United States (Washington) United StatesWashington2015 Fallow glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
147Salsola tragusRussian-thistle18160
11 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon2016 Fallow glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
147Salsola tragusRussian-thistle13055
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Thursday, June 17, 2021 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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