International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP G/9 RESISTANT ANNUAL BLUEGRASS
(Poa annua)


EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)

United States, California
INTRODUCTION ANNUAL BLUEGRASS
Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In United States this weed first evolved resistance to Group G/9 herbicides in 2013 and infests Almonds.   Group G/9 herbicides are known as EPSP synthase inhibitors (Inhibition of EPSP synthase).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to glyphosate and they may be cross-resistant to other Group G/9 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Jan 03, 2014 )

Common NameAnnual Bluegrass
SpeciesPoa annua
GroupEPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Herbicidesglyphosate
LocationUnited States
Year2013
Situation(s)Almonds
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Brad Hanson, and Marcelo L. Moretti 
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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Annual Bluegrass biotype with this Annual Bluegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group G/9 resistant Annual Bluegrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group G/9 resistant Annual Bluegrass from United States please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

BRAD HANSON
Cooperative Extension Weed Specialist
University Of California, Davis
Department Of Plant Sciences
MS-4, One Shields Ave
276 Robbins Hall
Davis, 91616, California
United States
Email Brad Hanson
Web   : Web Site Link
MARCELO L. MORETTI
PhD candidate
University of California - Davis
Plant Sciences
One Shields Ave
Davis, 95616, California
United States
Email Marcelo L. Moretti
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in United States have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Brad Hanson, and Marcelo L. Moretti for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Annual Bluegrass Globally
(Poa annua)
Herbicide Resistant Annual Bluegrass Globally
(Poa annua)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Annual Bluegrass Globally
(Poa annua)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2009 Turf endothall 1 Unknown (Z/27)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5513
2 BelgiumBelgium 1981 Nurseries, Orchards, and Roadsides simazine 3 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass33
3 BelgiumBelgium 1983 Orchards amitrole 3 Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass38
4 BelgiumBelgium 1993 Hops paraquat 3 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass36
5 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 1988 Orchards, and Railways atrazine, cyanazine, prometryn, and terbutryn 12 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass85
6 FranceFrance 1978 Orchards atrazine 17 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass464
7 GermanyGermany 1980 Orchards atrazine 18 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass449
8 JapanJapan 1982 Golf courses, and Turf simazine 25 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass117
9 NetherlandsNetherlands 1981 Orchards simazine 43 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass219
10 NorwayNorway 1996 Nurseries simazine 31 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass388
11 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1981 Hops paraquat 44 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass359
12 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1981 Orchards simazine 44 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass366
13 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama1980 Pastures simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1166
14 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1994 Grass seed ethofumesate 45 Lipid Inhibitors (N/16)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass334
15 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1994 Grass seed diuron 45 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass336
16 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1994 Grass seed atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass338
17 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1995 Golf courses, and Turf simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1060
18 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1996 Turf atrazine, and simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1187
19 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1997 Golf courses, and Turf pendimethalin, and prodiamine 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1165
20 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia2001 Golf courses, and Turf simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5162
21 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2007 Golf courses, and Turf dithiopyr, pendimethalin, and prodiamine 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5645
22 United States (Missouri) United StatesMissouri2010 Turf glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5495
23 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2011 Golf courses, and Turf glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5596
24 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama2012 Turf bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, imazaquin, and trifloxysulfuron-sodium 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5644
25 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama2012 Turf dithiopyr, pendimethalin, and prodiamine 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5695
26 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2013 Golf courses, and Turf foramsulfuron, simazine, and trifloxysulfuron-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass6765
27 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2013 Almonds glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass7805
28 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2014 Golf courses foramsulfuron 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass10982
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