International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP B/2 RESISTANT THREELEAF ARROWHEAD
(Sagittaria trifolia)


ALS inhibitors (B/2)

Japan, Akita
INTRODUCTION THREELEAF ARROWHEAD
Threeleaf Arrowhead (Sagittaria trifolia) is a monocot weed in the Alismataceae family.  In Japan this weed first evolved resistance to Group B/2 herbicides in 1997 and infests Rice.   Group B/2 herbicides are known as ALS inhibitors (Inhibition of acetolactate synthase ALS (acetohydroxyacid synthase AHAS)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to bensulfuron-methyl and they may be cross-resistant to other Group B/2 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Jan 08, 2014 )

Common NameThreeleaf Arrowhead
SpeciesSagittaria trifolia
GroupALS inhibitors (B/2)
Herbicidesbensulfuron-methyl
LocationJapan, Akita
Year1997
Situation(s)Rice
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Satoshi Iwakami, Tohru Tominaga, and Akira Uchino 
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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, and Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Threeleaf Arrowhead biotype with this Threeleaf Arrowhead biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group B/2 resistant Threeleaf Arrowhead have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group B/2 resistant Threeleaf Arrowhead from Japan please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

SATOSHI IWAKAMI
Weed Scientist
University of Tsukuba
Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences
1-1-1 Tennoudai
Tsukuba, 305-8577, Ibaraki
Japan
Email Satoshi Iwakami
TOHRU TOMINAGA
Professor
Kyoto University
Graduate School of Agriculture
Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho
Sakyo
Kyoto, 606-8502, Kyoto
Japan
Email Tohru Tominaga
AKIRA UCHINO
Weed Scientist
NARO Agricultural Research Center
Graduate School of Agriculture
3-1-1 Kannondai
Tsukuba, 305-8666, Ibaraki
Japan
Email Akira Uchino

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Japan have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Satoshi Iwakami, Tohru Tominaga, and Akira Uchino for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Threeleaf Arrowhead Globally
(Sagittaria trifolia)
Herbicide Resistant Threeleaf Arrowhead Globally
(Sagittaria trifolia)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Threeleaf Arrowhead Globally
(Sagittaria trifolia)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ChinaChina 2014 Rice bensulfuron-methyl, bispyribac-sodium, penoxsulam, and pyribenzoxim 9 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
294Sagittaria trifoliaThreeleaf Arrowhead17139
2 JapanJapan 1997 Rice bensulfuron-methyl 25 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
294Sagittaria trifoliaThreeleaf Arrowhead7765
3 South KoreaSouth Korea 2011 Rice azimsulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, cinosulfuron, ethoxysulfuron, halosulfuron-methyl, imazosulfuron, and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl 27 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
294Sagittaria trifoliaThreeleaf Arrowhead7851
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Wednesday, June 19, 2019 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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