International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP D/22 RESISTANT BLACK NIGHTSHADE
(Solanum nigrum)


PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)

Malaysia
INTRODUCTION BLACK NIGHTSHADE
Black Nightshade (Solanum nigrum) is a dicot weed in the Solanaceae family.  In Malaysia this weed first evolved resistance to Group D/22 herbicides in 1990 and infests Vegetables.   Group D/22 herbicides are known as PSI Electron Diverter (Photosystem-I-electron diversion).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to paraquat and they may be cross-resistant to other Group D/22 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 15, 2000 )

Common NameBlack Nightshade
SpeciesSolanum nigrum
GroupPSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
Herbicidesparaquat
LocationMalaysia
Year1990
Situation(s)Vegetables
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Baki Bakar 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Baki Bakar
Cameron Highlands, Kota Bharu, Tapah (towns).

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GENERAL

Baki Bakar
Paraquat resistance in Solanum nigrum, Crassocephalum crepidiodes, Amaranthus lividus and Conyza sumatrensis in Malaysia. K. Itoh, M. Azmi, and A. Ahmad. In: IWCC Proceedings of the first International Weed Control Congress, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field trials comparing a known susceptible Black Nightshade biotype with this Black Nightshade biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group D/22 resistant Black Nightshade have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group D/22 resistant Black Nightshade from Malaysia please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

BAKI BAKAR
Senior Research Fellow
Institute of Biological Sciences, University Of Malaya
Dept. Of Botany
Faculty of Science Building
Kuala Lumpur, 50603 , Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
Email Baki Bakar
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Malaysia have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Baki Bakar for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum nigrum)
Herbicide Resistant Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum nigrum)
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Herbicide Resistant Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum nigrum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2015 Sugarcane for sugar, and Vegetables paraquat 1 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade11025
2 BelgiumBelgium 1981 Corn (maize), and Roadsides atrazine 3 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade31
3 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 1999 Corn (maize) atrazine 12 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade5051
4 FranceFrance 1979 Cropland atrazine 17 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade472
5 GermanyGermany 1980 Corn (maize) atrazine 18 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade439
6 ItalyItaly 1978 Corn (maize), and Cropland atrazine 24 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade113
7 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Vegetables paraquat 28 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade135
8 NetherlandsNetherlands 1981 Corn (maize) atrazine 43 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade218
9 New ZealandNew Zealand 1999 Corn (maize) atrazine, cyanazine, prometryn, and terbuthylazine 30 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade5106
10 New ZealandNew Zealand 2009 Sweet potato paraquat 30 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade5731
11 PolandPoland 1995 Orchards atrazine 33 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade376
12 SpainSpain 1987 Corn (maize) atrazine 38 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade180
13 SwitzerlandSwitzerland 1983 Cropland, and Pastures atrazine 41 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade207
14 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1983 Corn (maize) simazine 44 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
162Solanum nigrumBlack Nightshade364
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