International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP B/2 RESISTANT CORN GROMWELL
(Lithospermum arvense)


ALS inhibitors (B/2)

China, Henan Province
INTRODUCTION CORN GROMWELL
Corn Gromwell (Lithospermum arvense) is a dicot weed in the Boraginaceae family.  In China this weed first evolved resistance to Group B/2 herbicides in 2019 and infests Wheat.   Group B/2 herbicides are known as ALS inhibitors (Inhibition of acetolactate synthase ALS (acetohydroxyacid synthase AHAS)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to florasulam, imazethapyr, pyrithiobac-sodium, pyroxsulam, and tribenuron-methyl and they may be cross-resistant to other Group B/2 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Aug 05, 2019 )

Common NameCorn Gromwell
SpeciesLithospermum arvense
GroupALS inhibitors (B/2)
Herbicidesflorasulam, imazethapyr, pyrithiobac-sodium, pyroxsulam, and tribenuron-methyl
LocationChina, Henan Province
Year2019
Situation(s)Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Jinxin Wang 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Jinxin Wang

Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology (2019)    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2019.04.001

A Trp-574-Leu mutation in the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene of Lithospermum arvense L. confers broad-spectrum resistance to ALS inhibitors

Qian Wanga,b, Lu'an Gea,b, Ning Zhaoa,b, Lele Zhangc, Ludan Youa,b, Dandan Wanga,b, Weitang Liua,b,, Jinxin Wanga,b, a College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, Shandong, China b Key Laboratory of Pesticide Toxicology and Application Technology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, Shandong, China c Administration Bureau of the Yellow River Delta National Nature Reserve, Dongying 257091, Shandong, China

Lithospermum arvense is a troublesome dicotyledonous winter annual weed of wheat in China. A L. arvense population (HN01) suspected of being resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors was found in Henan Province, China. This study aimed to testify the sensitivity of this HN01 population to eight herbicides from 3 different modes of action, and to explore the potential target-site-resistance mechanism to tribenuron-methyl. The whole-plant bioassays indicated that the population was highly resistant to tribenuron-methyl (SU, 350-fold), pyrithiobac sodium (PTB, 151-fold), pyroxsulam (TP, 62.7-fold), florasulam (TP, 80.6-fold), and imazethapyr (IMI, 136-fold), but was sensitive to carfentrazone-ethyl and fluroxypyr-meptyl. ALS gene sequencing revealed that the Trp (TGG) was substituted by Leu (TTG) at codon 574 in resistant plants. In in vitro ALS assays, the concentration of tribenuron-methyl required to inhibit 50% ALS activity (I50) for HN01 was 117-fold greater than that required to inhibit a susceptible population (HN05), indicating that resistance was due to reduced sensitivity of the ALS enzyme to tribenuron-methyl. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ALS gene Trp-574-Leu amino acid mutation confer resistance to tribenuron-methyl in L. arvense.

Corresponding authors at: College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, Shandong, China. E-mail addresses: liuwt@sdau.edu.cn (W. Liu), wangjx@sdau.edu.cn (J. Wang). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2019.04.001

 

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Corn Gromwell biotype with this Corn Gromwell biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group B/2 resistant Corn Gromwell have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group B/2 resistant Corn Gromwell from China indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group B/2 resistant Corn Gromwell from China please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

JINXIN WANG
Professor
Shandong Agricultural University
College Of Plant Protection
Daizong Road 61#
Tai'an, 271018, Shandong
China
Email Jinxin Wang

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in China have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Jinxin Wang for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Corn Gromwell Globally
(Lithospermum arvense)
Herbicide Resistant Corn Gromwell Globally
(Lithospermum arvense)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Corn Gromwell Globally
(Lithospermum arvense)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ChinaChina 2019 Wheat florasulam, imazethapyr, pyrithiobac-sodium, pyroxsulam, and tribenuron-methyl 9 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
341Lithospermum arvenseCorn Gromwell18168
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