International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP B/2 RESISTANT RIGID RYEGRASS
(Lolium rigidum)


ALS inhibitors (B/2)

Greece
INTRODUCTION RIGID RYEGRASS
Rigid Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Greece this weed first evolved resistance to Group B/2 herbicides in 2009 and infests Winter wheat.   Group B/2 herbicides are known as ALS inhibitors (Inhibition of acetolactate synthase ALS (acetohydroxyacid synthase AHAS)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to chlorsulfuron and they may be cross-resistant to other Group B/2 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

If we do not have a picture for this weed, or you can provide a better picture (scan, digital camera etc) please please e-mail it to us.

QUIK STATS (last updated Oct 19, 2016 )

Common NameRigid Ryegrass
SpeciesLolium rigidum
GroupALS inhibitors (B/2)
Herbicideschlorsulfuron
LocationGreece
Year2009
Situation(s)Winter wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Ilias Eleftherohorinos, and Nikolaos Kaloumenos 
Edit this Case  |  Add New Case of Resistance  |  Add Note

NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

MECHANISM

Ilias Eleftherohorinos

Multiple Pro-197 substitutions in the acetolactate synthase of rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) and their impact on chlorsulfuron activity and plant growth

Nikolaos S. Kaloumenos, Vassiliki C. Tsioni, Eugenia G. Daliani, Stella E. Papavassileiou, Anthi G. Vassileiou, Poplia N. Laoutidou, Ilias G. Eleftherohorinos

Crop Protection 38 (2012) 35-43

The evaluation of 21 Lolium rigidum accessions for chlorsulfuron resistance in a whole-plant response experiment indicated that 10 accessions were highly resistant (R) to chlorsulfuron, three partially resistant (r) and seven susceptible (S) to this herbicide. The excellent control of the r accessions in the presence of terbufos provided strong evidence for the existence of herbicide metabolism resistance due to cytochrome P450 enzymes. The sequence of 34 L. rigidum plants from the 10 R accessions revealed that all mutant ALS alleles encoded an amino acid replacement at codon 197, which resulted in the substitution of Pro-197 by Ala, Arg, Gln, Leu, or Ser and probably His or Val. Most of the R accessions revealed more than one mutation and among them the Pro-197 by Ala was the most common, whereas twelve out of the 34 R sequenced individual plants were homozygous. The sequence of 12 and 9 L. rigidum plants from the respective four S and three r accessions did not indicate any ALS mutation at the codon 197. ALS activity assays confirmed the whole-plant response experiments and the ALS gene sequence results. The resistance ratios (R/S) for the R accessions ranged from 36 to 620 showing that ALS gene mutations resulted in less susceptible to chlor-sulfuron ALS enzyme. The R/S values for the r accessions were similar to the S-control accession. The growth rate evaluation of four R and four S L. rigidum accessions in the absence of competition indicated that the R accessions had similar growth pattern to that of S accessions, suggesting that the resistance-endowing ALS mutations did not result in detectable resistance fitness cost.

Edit this Note  |  Add New Note
 

ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Rigid Ryegrass biotype with this Rigid Ryegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group B/2 resistant Rigid Ryegrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group B/2 resistant Rigid Ryegrass from Greece indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group B/2 resistant Rigid Ryegrass from Greece please update the database.
 
Edit Case  |  Add Note  |  Add Article  |  Add New Case  |  Help

CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

ILIAS ELEFTHEROHORINOS
University Of Thessaloniki
Laboratory Of Agronomy
4033 Kensington Pl
Ghessaloniki, 54006
Greece
Email Ilias Eleftherohorinos
NIKOLAOS KALOUMENOS
Aristotle University Of Thessaloniki
Department Of Agriculture
4033 Kensington Pl
Thessaloniki, 54006
Greece
Email Nikolaos Kaloumenos

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Greece have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Ilias Eleftherohorinos, and Nikolaos Kaloumenos for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Rigid Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium rigidum)
Herbicide Resistant Rigid Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium rigidum)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Rigid Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium rigidum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1982 Canola, Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass15
2 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1982 Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorpropham, chlorsulfuron, clomazone, diclofop-methyl, ethalfluralin, fluazifop-P-butyl, imazapyr, metolachlor, metsulfuron-methyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, triallate, triasulfuron, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 7 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
DOXP inhibitors (F4/13)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
Mitosis inhibitors (K2/23)
Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15)
Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass389
3 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1984 Cropland, Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, and metsulfuron-methyl 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass324
4 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1984 Cropland, and Pasture seed trifluralin 1 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass330
5 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1984 Cropland metolachlor 1 Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass398
6 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria1984 Pastures, Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, metsulfuron-methyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, sethoxydim, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5042
7 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 1985 Canola, Chickpea, Faba beans, Lentils, Lupins, Peas, Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, triasulfuron, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass4
8 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1988 Railways, and Roadsides amitrole 1 Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass316
9 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1988 Cropland, Pasture seed, Railways, Roadsides, and Triazine-tolerant canola atrazine, and simazine 1 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass480
10 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1994 Cereals trifluralin 1 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5226
11 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria1996 Canola, Cereals, Fencelines, and Wheat glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass380
12 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 1997 Apples, Around Buildings, Canola, Cereals, Fencelines, Irrigation Channels, Roadsides, and Wheat glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5094
13 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1999 Alfalfa, Cereals, Clover, Fencelines, Grapes, Irrigation Channels, and Roadsides glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5188
14 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria1999 Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, glyphosate, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5363
15 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2003 Cereals, Fencelines, Grapes, Railways, and Roadsides glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5325
16 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2008 Grapes amitrole, and glyphosate 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5515
17 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2010 Pasture seed clethodim, and paraquat 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5489
18 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2010 Pasture seed atrazine, chlorsulfuron, clethodim, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and paraquat 1 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5510
19 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2013 Grapes glyphosate, and paraquat 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass6754
20 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2015 Wheat triallate 1 Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass11023
21 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2015 Wheat triallate 1 Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass11031
22 ChileChile 1997 Canola, Cereals, Lupins, Spring wheat, and Winter wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, haloxyfop-methyl, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 8 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5102
23 ChileChile 2003 Wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, flucarbazone-sodium, haloxyfop-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, pinoxaden, and tepraloxydim 8 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5427
24 FranceFrance 1993 Wheat diclofop-methyl 17 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass550
25 FranceFrance 2005 Grapes, and Orchards glyphosate 17 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5285
26 FranceFrance 2006 Wheat flupyrsulfuron-methyl-sodium, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, and propoxycarbazone-sodium 17 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5330
27 GreeceGreece 1997 Winter wheat diclofop-methyl 19 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass553
28 GreeceGreece 2009 Winter wheat chlorsulfuron 19 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass13053
29 IranIran 2007 Winter wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, and pinoxaden 79 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5340
30 IsraelIsrael 1979 Orchards, and Roadsides atrazine, and simazine 23 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass97
31 IsraelIsrael 1998 Alfalfa, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, pinoxaden, and quizalofop-P-ethyl 23 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5109
32 IsraelIsrael 2007 Wheat chlorsulfuron, clodinafop-propargyl, florasulam, flumetsulam, glyphosate, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metosulam, pinoxaden, propoxycarbazone-sodium, sulfometuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 23 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5556
33 IsraelIsrael 2013 Carrots, and Wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, cycloxydim, haloxyfop-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, propoxycarbazone-sodium, and sulfometuron-methyl 23 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass10992
34 ItalyItaly 2007 Grapes, and Orchards glyphosate 24 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5370
35 Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia 1992 Cereals, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, and tralkoxydim 35 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass551
36 South AfricaSouth Africa 1993 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, imazamox, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 37 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass192
37 South AfricaSouth Africa 2001 Grapes glyphosate 37 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5093
38 South AfricaSouth Africa 2002 Fruit, and Grapes paraquat 37 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5119
39 South AfricaSouth Africa 2003 Grapes glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, paraquat, and tepraloxydim 37 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5239
40 SpainSpain 1992 Wheat chlorotoluron, and diclofop-methyl 38 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass172
41 SpainSpain 1992 Wheat diclofop-methyl 38 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass173
42 SpainSpain 1992 Orchards simazine 38 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass174
43 SpainSpain 2006 Orchards glyphosate 38 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5332
44 TunisiaTunisia 1996 Cereals diclofop-methyl 78 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5028
45 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia1998 Almonds, and Orchards glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass1034
Literature about Similar Cases

Page size:
select
Page: of 59
Items 1 to 5 of 295

Page size:
select
Page: of 59
Items 1 to 5 of 295
PERMISSION MUST BE OBTAINED FIRST if you intend to base a significant portion of a scientific paper on data derived from this site.
Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Wednesday, April 26, 2017 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
Copyright © 1993- 2017 WeedScience.org All rights reserved. Fair use of this material is encouraged. Proper citation is requested.