International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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MULTIPLE RESISTANT PALMER AMARANTH
(Amaranthus palmeri)


Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
HPPD inhibitors (F2/27)

United States, Nebraska
INTRODUCTION PALMER AMARANTH
Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) is a dicot weed in the Amaranthaceae family.  In Nebraska this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 2 herbicide sites of action) in 2014 and infests Corn (maize).  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups C1/5, and F2/27.  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to atrazine, mesotrione, tembotrione, and topramezone and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups C1/5, and F2/27.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Aug 28, 2016 )

Common NamePalmer Amaranth
SpeciesAmaranthus palmeri
GroupPhotosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
HPPD inhibitors (F2/27)
Herbicidesatrazine, mesotrione, tembotrione, and topramezone
LocationUnited States, Nebraska
Year2014
Situation(s)Corn (maize)
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Amit Jhala, Stevan Knezevic, Greg Kruger, and Lowell Sandell 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Lowell Sandell

Weed Technology 2014 28:28–38


Confirmation and Control of Triazine and 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase-Inhibiting Herbicide-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Nebraska


Amit J. Jhala, Lowell D. Sandell, Neha Rana, Greg R. Kruger, and Stevan Z. Knezevic


Palmer amaranth is a difficult-to-control broadleaf weed that infests corn and soybean fields in southcentral and southwestern Nebraska and several other states in the United States. The objectives of this research were to confirm triazine and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth in Nebraska and to determine sensitivity and efficacy of POSTapplied corn herbicides for control of resistant and susceptible Palmer amaranth biotypes. Seeds from a putative HPPD-resistant Palmer amaranth biotype from Fillmore County, NE were collected from a seed corn production field in fall 2010. The response of Palmer amaranth biotypes to 12 rates (0 to 123) of mesotrione, tembotrione, topramezone, and atrazine was evaluated in a dose–response bioassay in a greenhouse. On the basis of the values at the 90% effective dose (ED90) level, the analysis showed a 4- to 23-fold resistance depending upon the type of HPPD-inhibiting herbicide being investigated and susceptible biotype used for comparison. This biotype also had a 9- to 14-fold level of resistance to atrazine applied POST. Results of a POST-applied herbicide efficacy study suggested a synergistic interaction between atrazine and HPPD-inhibiting herbicides that resulted in . 90% control of all Palmer amaranth biotypes. The resistant biotype had a reduced sensitivity to acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides (halosulfuron and primisulfuron), a photosystem-II inhibitor (bromoxynil), and a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor (fluthiacet-methyl). Palmer amaranth biotypes were effectively controlled ( 90%) with glyphosate, glufosinate, and dicamba, whereas 2,4-D ester provided 81 to 83% control of the resistant biotype and . 90% control of both susceptible biotypes. 

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Palmer Amaranth biotype with this Palmer Amaranth biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group C1, F2/5, 27 resistant Palmer Amaranth have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

Triazine resistant weeds often exhibit a lower relative fitness when compared to susceptible biotypes.  The most common mutation conferring triazine resistance (Ser 264 to Gly mutation of the psbA gene) also causes a reduction in CO2 fixation, quantum yield, and seed and biomass production.  There is no record in this database referring specifically to fitness studies on multiple resistant Palmer Amaranth from Nebraska.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

AMIT JHALA
Assistant Professor (Weed Science)
University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Agronomy and Horticulture
279, Plant Sci. Hall
Lincoln, 68583, Nebraska
United States
Email Amit Jhala
Web   : Web Site Link
STEVAN KNEZEVIC
Professor
University Of Nebraska
Department of Agronomy and Horticulture
Haskell Agricultural Laboratory
57905 866 Road
Concord, 68728, Nebraska
United States
Email Stevan Knezevic
Web   : Web Site Link
GREG KRUGER
Assistant Professor
University Of Nebraska - Lincoln
Agronomy & Horticulture
West Central Research & Extension Center - 402 West State Farm Road
North Platte, 69101-7756, Nebraska
United States
Email Greg Kruger
Web   : Web Site Link
LOWELL SANDELL
Weed Science Extension Educator
University Of Nebraska-Lincoln
Agronomy & Horticulture
174 Keim Hall
Lincoln, 68583-0915, Nebraska
United States
Email Lowell Sandell
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Nebraska have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Amit Jhala, Stevan Knezevic, Greg Kruger, and Lowell Sandell for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Palmer Amaranth Globally
(Amaranthus palmeri)
Herbicide Resistant Palmer Amaranth Globally
(Amaranthus palmeri)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Palmer Amaranth Globally
(Amaranthus palmeri)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2015 Soybean glyphosate 48 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13038
2 BrazilBrazil 2015 Cotton glyphosate 5 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth11009
3 BrazilBrazil 2016 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, glyphosate, and imazethapyr 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13042
4 IsraelIsrael 2008 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Watermelon foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, pyrithiobac-sodium, rimsulfuron, and trifloxysulfuron-sodium 23 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth9921
5 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1989 Cotton, and Soybean trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth267
6 United States (Texas) United StatesTexas1993 Corn (maize), and Sorghum atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth270
7 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas1993 Alfalfa, Corn (maize), Sorghum, and Soybean imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth332
8 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1994 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, diclosulam, imazaquin, imazethapyr, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth403
9 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1994 Cotton, and Soybean imazaquin, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5313
10 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas1995 Corn (maize), and Sorghum atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth1040
11 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1995 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth1059
12 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1997 Corn (maize), Cotton, Peanut (groundnut), and Soybean imazapic, imazaquin, and imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth1111
13 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1998 Cotton, and Soybean trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5569
14 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2000 Peanut (groundnut) imazapic, and imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5092
15 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2005 Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5256
16 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2005 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5360
17 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2006 Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5296
18 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2006 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5387
19 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina2006 Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7780
20 United States (New Mexico) United StatesNew Mexico2007 Orchards, and Pecan nut glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5386
21 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2008 Cotton glyphosate, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5359
22 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida2008 Cropland imazapic, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5369
23 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama2008 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5388
24 United States (Missouri) United StatesMissouri2008 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5391
25 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2008 Cotton glyphosate, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5498
26 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2008 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5499
27 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2009 Cotton, and Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, glyphosate, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5571
28 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas2009 Corn (maize), and Sorghum atrazine, mesotrione, pyrasulfotole, tembotrione, thifensulfuron-methyl, and topramezone 45 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
HPPD inhibitors (F2/27)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5705
29 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana2010 Cotton glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5494
30 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois2010 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5543
31 United States (Ohio) United StatesOhio2010 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5696
32 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina2010 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate, pyrithiobac-sodium, thifensulfuron-methyl, and trifloxysulfuron-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7781
33 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2010 Corn (maize) atrazine, glyphosate, imazapic, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7788
34 United States (Kentucky) United StatesKentucky2010 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7882
35 United States (Michigan) United StatesMichigan2011 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5557
36 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia2011 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5568
37 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2011 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5694
38 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2011 Corn (maize) mesotrione, tembotrione, and topramezone 45 HPPD inhibitors (F2/27)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5700
39 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas2011 Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5704
40 United States (Texas) United StatesTexas2011 Cotton glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7777
41 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2011 Soybean fomesafen, pyrithiobac-sodium, and trifloxysulfuron-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PPO inhibitors (E/14)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth11006
42 United States (Arizona) United StatesArizona2012 Cotton glyphosate, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5699
43 United States (Delaware) United StatesDelaware2012 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5707
44 United States (Indiana) United StatesIndiana2012 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7835
45 United States (Pennsylvania) United StatesPennsylvania2013 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7779
46 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois2013 Corn (maize), and Soybean imazethapyr, and primisulfuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7866
47 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois2013 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate, imazethapyr, and primisulfuron-methyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7867
48 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida2013 Corn (maize), and Cotton glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7869
49 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida2013 Soybean glyphosate, and imazapic 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7870
50 United States (Wisconsin) United StatesWisconsin2013 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth10957
51 United States (Delaware) United StatesDelaware2014 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth8914
52 United States (Maryland) United StatesMaryland2014 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth8915
53 United States (New Jersey) United StatesNew Jersey2014 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth9922
54 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2014 Corn (maize) atrazine, mesotrione, tembotrione, and topramezone 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
HPPD inhibitors (F2/27)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13048
55 United States (Wisconsin) United StatesWisconsin2014 Corn (maize) imazethapyr, tembotrione, and thifensulfuron-methyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
HPPD inhibitors (F2/27)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth16099
56 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2015 Soybean fomesafen, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PPO inhibitors (E/14)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13037
57 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2015 Corn (maize) glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13041
58 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2016 Soybean atrazine, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13047
59 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois2016 Corn (maize), Horseradish, and Soybean fomesafen, glyphosate, and lactofen 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PPO inhibitors (E/14)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13050
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Friday, December 15, 2017 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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