International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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Status of Herbicide Resistance in Arkansas - Jason Norsworthy : January, 2014

Herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth is the number one threat to row crop production throughout Arkansas. At present, all row crop production counties in the state have Palmer amaranth populations with resistance to glyphosate and the ALS-inhibiting herbicides, and these multiple-resistant biotypes are common along roadsides based on recent surveys. Additionally, barnyardgrass, the number one weed of rice continues to evolve resistance to a wide array of herbicides, including propanil, quinclorac, clomazone, and several ALS inhibitors. Based on recent surveys approximately 50% of rice fields in Arkansas have barnyardgrass populations having resistance to propanil, and quinclorac resistance exists in about 25% of all fields. Most often, barnyardgrass populations having resistance to quinclorac likewise exhibit multiple resistance to propanil (about 20% samples tested).

Herbicide Resistant Weeds in Arkansas, United States.
#YearSpeciesSite of ActionActivesContacts
1 400Goosegrass1989Eleusine indica
Goosegrass
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasAR Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3) Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3) trifluralin Ronald Talbert : Retired, Ford Baldwin
2 404Common cocklebur1989Xanthium strumarium
Common cocklebur
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasAR Nucleic acid inhibitors (Z/17) Nucleic acid inhibitors (Z/17) MSMA Ronald Talbert : Retired, Ford Baldwin
3 399Barnyardgrass1990Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli
Barnyardgrass
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasAR PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7) PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7) propanil Ronald Talbert : Retired, Ford Baldwin
4 403Palmer Amaranth1994Amaranthus palmeri
Palmer Amaranth
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasAR ALS inhibitors (B/2) ALS inhibitors (B/2) chlorimuron-ethyl, diclosulam, imazaquin, imazethapyr, pyrithiobac-sodium Ronald Talbert : Retired, Nilda R. Burgos
5 401Common cocklebur1995Xanthium strumarium
Common cocklebur
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasAR ALS inhibitors (B/2) ALS inhibitors (B/2) imazaquin Ronald Talbert : Retired, Ford Baldwin
6 402Redroot Pigweed1995Amaranthus retroflexus
Redroot Pigweed
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasAR ALS inhibitors (B/2) ALS inhibitors (B/2) imazaquin Ronald Talbert : Retired, Ford Baldwin
7 1097Italian Ryegrass1995Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum
Italian Ryegrass
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasAR ACCase inhibitors (A/1), ALS inhibitors (B/2) Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl Nilda R. Burgos, Robert Scott
8 1188Barnyardgrass1999Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli
Barnyardgrass
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasAR PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7), Synthetic Auxins (O/4) Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
propanil, quinclorac Ford Baldwin, Nilda R. Burgos
9 13046Red Rice2002Oryza sativa var. sylvatica
Red Rice
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  ALS inhibitors (B/2) ALS inhibitors (B/2) imazamox, imazapyr, imazaquin, imazethapyr, pyrithiobac-sodium Nilda R. Burgos
10 5187Horseweed2003Conyza canadensis
Horseweed
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9) EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9) glyphosate Ronald Talbert : Retired
11 5399Italian Ryegrass2003Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum
Italian Ryegrass
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  ALS inhibitors (B/2) ALS inhibitors (B/2) chlorsulfuron, imazamox, mesosulfuron-methyl, sulfometuron-methyl Nilda R. Burgos, Robert Scott
12 5261Common Ragweed2004Ambrosia artemisiifolia
Common Ragweed
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9) EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9) glyphosate Nilda R. Burgos
13 5409Italian Ryegrass2005Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum
Italian Ryegrass
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasArkansas ACCase inhibitors (A/1) ACCase inhibitors (A/1) clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, pinoxaden Nilda R. Burgos, Robert Scott
14 5345Giant Ragweed2005Ambrosia trifida
Giant Ragweed
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9) EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9) glyphosate Robert Scott, Jason Norsworthy
15 5296Palmer Amaranth2006Amaranthus palmeri
Palmer Amaranth
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9) EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9) glyphosate Robert Scott, Jason Norsworthy, Kenneth Smith
16 5344Johnsongrass2007Sorghum halepense
Johnsongrass
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9) EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9) glyphosate Robert Scott, Jason Norsworthy
17 5401Italian Ryegrass2008Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum
Italian Ryegrass
United States
(Arkansas)
ArkansasArkansas EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9) EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9) glyphosate Nilda R. Burgos, Robert Scott
18 5563Barnyardgrass2008Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli
Barnyardgrass
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  DOXP inhibitors (F4/13) DOXP inhibitors (F4/13) clomazone Jason Norsworthy
19 5560Rice Flatsedge2010Cyperus iria
Rice Flatsedge
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  ALS inhibitors (B/2) ALS inhibitors (B/2) bispyribac-sodium, halosulfuron-methyl, imazamox, imazethapyr, penoxsulam Jason Norsworthy
20 5562Smallflower Umbrella Sedge2010Cyperus difformis
Smallflower Umbrella Sedge
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  ALS inhibitors (B/2) ALS inhibitors (B/2) halosulfuron-methyl Jason Norsworthy
21 10956Junglerice2011Echinochloa colona
Junglerice
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  ALS inhibitors (B/2), Cellulose inhibitors (L/26), PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7) Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Cellulose inhibitors (L/26)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
imazethapyr, propanil, quinclorac (MOA in monocots) Nilda R. Burgos
22 11006Palmer Amaranth2011Amaranthus palmeri
Palmer Amaranth
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  ALS inhibitors (B/2), PPO inhibitors (E/14) Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PPO inhibitors (E/14)
fomesafen, pyrithiobac-sodium, trifloxysulfuron-sodium Nilda R. Burgos, Robert Scott, Jason Norsworthy, Reiofeli Salas, Tom Barber
23 6752Yellow Nutsedge2013Cyperus esculentus
Yellow Nutsedge
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  ALS inhibitors (B/2) ALS inhibitors (B/2) halosulfuron-methyl Jason Norsworthy, Parsa Tehranchian
24 10980Tall Waterhemp2015Amaranthus tuberculatus (=A. rudis)
Tall Waterhemp
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9) EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9) glyphosate Jason Norsworthy
25 18156Palmer Amaranth2016Amaranthus palmeri
Palmer Amaranth
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  ALS inhibitors (B/2), EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9), Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15), Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3), PPO inhibitors (E/14) Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
PPO inhibitors (E/14)
acifluorfen-sodium, carfentrazone-ethyl, flumetsulam, fluthiacet-methyl, fomesafen, glyphosate, imazethapyr, lactofen, pendimethalin, pyraflufen-ethyl, pyrithiobac-sodium, S-metolachlor, trifloxysulfuron-sodium Nilda R. Burgos, Matthew Bertucci, Cammy Willett , Badou Jeremie Kouame
26 18154Palmer Amaranth2017Amaranthus palmeri
Palmer Amaranth
United States
(Arkansas)
Arkansas  Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15) Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15) S-metolachlor Jason Norsworthy, Vijay Varanasi, Tom Barber, Chad Brabham, Michael Houston
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Sunday, November 17, 2019 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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