International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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Status of Herbicide Resistance in North Carolina - Alan York : January, 2014

Glyphosate- and ALS-resistant Palmer amaranth is our number one problem. It is wide-spread across the state and is very problematic in cotton and soybean where we have traditionally relied on glyphosate. It infests at least 70% of our cotton and soybean fields. A state-wide survey in the fall of 2010 showed that 95% of 130 populations collected on a grid sampling of the state east of the mountains had multiple resistance to glyphosate and ALS inhibitors. A paper entitled Distribution of Glyphosate- and Thifensulfuron-resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in North Carolina by A.H. Poirier, A. C. York, D. L. Jordan, A. Chandi, W. J. Everman, and J. R. Whitaker has been accepted by International Journal of Agronomy. ACCase- and ALS-resistant Italian ryegrass is also a serious and wide-spread problem in wheat. The only option left for control at the current time is Axiom, but the application window is very narrow and the product performs inconsistently because of the need for very timely rainfall to activate it. In some areas, the problem is bad enough that wheat is being abandoned.

Herbicide Resistant Weeds in North Carolina, United States.
#YearSpeciesSite of ActionActivesContacts
1 258Goosegrass1973Eleusine indica
Goosegrass
United States
(North Carolina)
North CarolinaNC Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3) Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3) trifluralin Harold Coble
2 261Common Lambsquarters1980Chenopodium album
Common Lambsquarters
United States
(North Carolina)
North CarolinaNC PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5) PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5) atrazine Alan York
3 262Smooth Pigweed1980Amaranthus hybridus (syn: quitensis)
Smooth Pigweed
United States
(North Carolina)
North CarolinaNC PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5) PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5) atrazine Alan York
4 259Italian Ryegrass1990Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum
Italian Ryegrass
United States
(North Carolina)
North CarolinaNC Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) diclofop-methyl, sethoxydim Harold Coble
5 260Common cocklebur1994Xanthium strumarium
Common cocklebur
United States
(North Carolina)
North CarolinaNC Nucleic acid inhibitors (Z/17) Nucleic acid inhibitors (Z/17) DSMA, MSMA Harold Coble
6 1059Palmer Amaranth1995Amaranthus palmeri
Palmer Amaranth
United States
(North Carolina)
North CarolinaNC Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) chlorimuron-ethyl Harold Coble
7 1060Annual Bluegrass1995Poa annua
Annual Bluegrass
United States
(North Carolina)
North Carolina  PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5) PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5) simazine Harold Coble
8 1165Annual Bluegrass1997Poa annua
Annual Bluegrass
United States
(North Carolina)
North Carolina  Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3) Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3) pendimethalin, prodiamine Harold Coble
9 7820Common cocklebur1999Xanthium strumarium
Common cocklebur
United States
(North Carolina)
North Carolina  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, imazapyr, primisulfuron-methyl, pyrithiobac-sodium Alan York
10 5200Horseweed2003Conyza canadensis
Horseweed
United States
(North Carolina)
North Carolina  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Alan York
11 5360Palmer Amaranth2005Amaranthus palmeri
Palmer Amaranth
United States
(North Carolina)
North Carolina  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Alan York
12 7819Common Ragweed2006Ambrosia artemisiifolia
Common Ragweed
United States
(North Carolina)
North Carolina  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Alan York
13 7857Common Ragweed2006Ambrosia artemisiifolia
Common Ragweed
United States
(North Carolina)
North Carolina  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) diclosulam David Jordan
14 7818Italian Ryegrass2007Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum
Italian Ryegrass
United States
(North Carolina)
North Carolina  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2) mesosulfuron-methyl Alan York
15 7856Italian Ryegrass2007Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum
Italian Ryegrass
United States
(North Carolina)
North Carolina  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2), Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1) Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
diclofop-methyl, imazamox, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, pyroxsulam Alan York
16 7811Italian Ryegrass2009Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum
Italian Ryegrass
United States
(North Carolina)
North Carolina  Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9) glyphosate Alan York, Jason Bond
17 13036Common Ragweed2015Ambrosia artemisiifolia
Common Ragweed
United States
(North Carolina)
North Carolina  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2), Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9), Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14) Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14)
acifluorfen, cloransulam-methyl, fomesafen, glyphosate, lactofen, nicosulfuron Brandon Schrage, Wesley Everman
18 15072Goosegrass2015Eleusine indica
Goosegrass
United States
(North Carolina)
North Carolina  Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14) Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14) oxadiazon Scott Mcelroy
19 18188Palmer Amaranth2016Amaranthus palmeri
Palmer Amaranth
United States
(North Carolina)
North Carolina  Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase (F2/27) Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase (F2/27) mesotrione Nilda R. Burgos, David Jordan, Denis Mahoney
20 19222Tall Waterhemp2020Amaranthus tuberculatus (=A. rudis)
Tall Waterhemp
United States
(North Carolina)
North Carolina  Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2), Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9), Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase (F2/27), Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14), PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5) Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase (F2/27)
Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
atrazine, fomesafen, glyphosate, imazethapyr, mesotrione Wesley Everman, Eric Jones
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Saturday, November 27, 2021 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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