International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP A/1 RESISTANT LITTLE SEED CANARY GRASS
(Phalaris minor)


ACCase inhibitors (A/1)

Iran, Fars, Golestan & Khuzestan
INTRODUCTION LITTLE SEED CANARY GRASS
Little seed Canary grass (Phalaris minor) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Iran this weed first evolved resistance to Group A/1 herbicides in 2004 and infests Winter wheat.   Group A/1 herbicides are known as ACCase inhibitors (Inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, pinoxaden, and tralkoxydim and they may be cross-resistant to other Group A/1 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Apr 07, 2015 )

Common NameLittle seed Canary grass
SpeciesPhalaris minor
GroupACCase inhibitors (A/1)
Herbicidesclodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, pinoxaden, and tralkoxydim
LocationIran, Fars, Golestan & Khuzestan
Year2004
Situation(s)Winter wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Elham Elahifard, Javid Gherekhloo, and Eskandar Zand 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Javid Gherekhloo

Poster 248th ACS National Meeting and Exposition-San Fransisco-2014

Identifying and mapping wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Dur.) and little seed canarygrass (Phalaris minor Retz.) resistant biotypes to clodinafop-propargyl in wheat fields of Kordkuy, Iran.

R. Kalami, J. Gherekhloo, B. Kamkar, E. Esfandiaripour and R. De Prado 

Get PDF of Poster Here

 

 

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GENERAL

Javid Gherekhloo

GHEREKHLOO, J., RASHED MOHASSEL, M. H., MAHALATI, M. N., ZAND, E., GHANBARI, A., OSUNA, M. D. and DE PRADO, R. (2011), Confirmed resistance to aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides in Phalaris minor populations in Iran. Weed Biology and Management, 11: 29–37. doi:10.1111/j.1445-6664.2011.00402.x

Get PDF of Paper Here

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MECHANISM

Javid Gherekhloo

J. Gherekhloo, M.D. Osuna, and R DePrado. 2012. Biochemical and molecular basis of resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in Iranian Phalaris minor populations. Weed Research.  

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Little seed Canary grass biotype with this Little seed Canary grass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group A/1 resistant Little seed Canary grass indicate that the inheritance is determined by a two gene, nuclear trait.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group A/1 resistant Little seed Canary grass from Iran indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group A/1 resistant Little seed Canary grass from Iran please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

ELHAM ELAHIFARD
ََAssistant Professor
Khouzestan Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University
Depart. of Agronomy and Breeding Plants
College of Agriculture
Khouzestan Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Molla Sani, Iran, P. O. Box: 6341773637.
Molla Sani, 6341773637, Khouzestan
Iran
Email Elham Elahifard
JAVID GHEREKHLOO
Associate Professor
Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
Agronomy Department
College of Agriculture
Khouzestan Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University
Molla Sani, Iran, P. O. Box: 6341773637.
Gorgan, 49189-43464, Golestan
Iran
Email Javid Gherekhloo
ESKANDAR ZAND
Weed Researcher
Plant Peast & Deisease Research Institute
Weed Research Department
Plant Pest And Disease Research In
105 Kirkwood Dr
Tehran, 19395, Golestan
Iran
Email Eskandar Zand

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Iran have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Elham Elahifard, Javid Gherekhloo, and Eskandar Zand for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Little seed Canary grass Globally
(Phalaris minor)
Herbicide Resistant Little seed Canary grass Globally
(Phalaris minor)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Little seed Canary grass Globally
(Phalaris minor)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2012 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl 1 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass7838
2 IndiaIndia 1991 Wheat isoproturon 21 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass222
3 IndiaIndia 1994 Wheat diclofop-methyl, and pinoxaden 21 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass7815
4 IndiaIndia 2006 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, pyroxsulam, and sulfosulfuron 21 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5324
5 IndiaIndia 2013 Wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and mesosulfuron-methyl 21 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass7816
6 IranIran 2004 Winter wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, pinoxaden, and tralkoxydim 79 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5377
7 IsraelIsrael 1993 Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 23 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass111
8 MexicoMexico 1996 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, pinoxaden, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 29 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass478
9 PakistanPakistan 2015 Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 86 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass15074
10 South AfricaSouth Africa 1999 Pastures, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, haloxyfop-P-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, propaquizafop, quizalofop-P-tefuryl, and sulfosulfuron 37 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5194
11 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2001 Onions clethodim, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, and sethoxydim 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5163
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Tuesday, April 25, 2017 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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