International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
MULTIPLE RESISTANT WILD POINSETTIA
(Euphorbia heterophylla)


Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PPO inhibitors (E/14)

Brazil, Paraná
INTRODUCTION WILD POINSETTIA
Wild Poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla) is a dicot weed in the Euphorbiaceae family.  In Brazil this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 2 herbicide sites of action) in 2004 and infests Corn (maize), and Soybean.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups B/2, and E/14.  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to acifluorfen-sodium, cloransulam-methyl, diclosulam, flumetsulam, flumiclorac-pentyl, fomesafen, imazethapyr, lactofen, metsulfuron-methyl, nicosulfuron, and saflufenacil and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups B/2, and E/14.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Jan 20, 2015 )

Common NameWild Poinsettia
SpeciesEuphorbia heterophylla
GroupALS inhibitors (B/2)
PPO inhibitors (E/14)
Herbicidesacifluorfen-sodium, cloransulam-methyl, diclosulam, flumetsulam, flumiclorac-pentyl, fomesafen, imazethapyr, lactofen, metsulfuron-methyl, nicosulfuron, and saflufenacil
LocationBrazil, Paraná
Year2004
Situation(s)Corn (maize), and Soybean
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Michelangelo Trezzi 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

CROSS RESISTANCE

Michelangelo Trezzi
Multiple resistance of acetolactate synthase and protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors in Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes ABSTRACT: The probability to select biotypes of Euphorbia heterophylla (EPPHL) with multiple resistance increases in the same magnitude that the use of other herbicides belonging to only one mechanism of action. In greenhouse, samples of each population were sprayed with imazethapyr or fomesafen, in only one rate, to identify the resistant ones. These were sprayed with different levels of the herbicides imazethapyr and fomesafen. Later, they were sprayed with diverse herbicides of the same mechanisms of action to confirm the multiple/cross resistance. Some biotypes demonstrated resistance to herbicides from the two mechanisms of action. The resistance factor (FR), or the relation of resistance between R and susceptible biotypes, confirm the existence of two biotypes of EPHHL with cross resistance to several herbicides inhibitors of ALS and PROTOX. Experiments with the goal to investigate resistance mechanism to PROTOX indicate differencial absorption of fomesafen between susceptible and resistant biotypes, specially when the herbicide is sprayed in the shoots of plants.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Wild Poinsettia biotype with this Wild Poinsettia biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group B, E/2, 14 resistant Wild Poinsettia have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Wild Poinsettia from Brazil please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

MICHELANGELO TREZZI
Professor Of Agronomy School
Agronomy School Utfpr, Campus Pato Branco
Depart. Of Crop Science
Stine-haskell Research Station
Pato Branco, 85503-390, Paraná
Brazil
Email Michelangelo Trezzi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Brazil have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Michelangelo Trezzi for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Wild Poinsettia Globally
(Euphorbia heterophylla)
Herbicide Resistant Wild Poinsettia Globally
(Euphorbia heterophylla)
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Herbicide Resistant Wild Poinsettia Globally
(Euphorbia heterophylla)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 BrazilBrazil 1993 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, imazamox, imazaquin, and imazethapyr 5 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
87Euphorbia heterophyllaWild Poinsettia5294
2 BrazilBrazil 2004 Corn (maize), and Soybean acifluorfen-sodium, cloransulam-methyl, diclosulam, flumetsulam, flumiclorac-pentyl, fomesafen, imazethapyr, lactofen, metsulfuron-methyl, nicosulfuron, and saflufenacil 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PPO inhibitors (E/14)
87Euphorbia heterophyllaWild Poinsettia5215
3 EcuadorEcuador 1990 Corn (maize), and Soybean linuron 14 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
87Euphorbia heterophyllaWild Poinsettia87
4 ParaguayParaguay 1995 Soybean imazethapyr 46 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
87Euphorbia heterophyllaWild Poinsettia1162
Literature about Similar Cases

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