International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP B/2 RESISTANT EASTERN BLACK NIGHTSHADE
(Solanum ptycanthum)


ALS inhibitors (B/2)

Canada, Ontario
INTRODUCTION EASTERN BLACK NIGHTSHADE
Eastern Black Nightshade (Solanum ptycanthum) is a dicot weed in the Solanaceae family.  In Ontario this weed first evolved resistance to Group B/2 herbicides in 2000 and infests Corn (maize), and Soybean.   Group B/2 herbicides are known as ALS inhibitors (Inhibition of acetolactate synthase ALS (acetohydroxyacid synthase AHAS)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to flumetsulam, imazamox, imazethapyr, nicosulfuron, primisulfuron-methyl, prosulfuron, and rimsulfuron and they may be cross-resistant to other Group B/2 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Jul 26, 2012 )

Common NameEastern Black Nightshade
SpeciesSolanum ptycanthum
GroupALS inhibitors (B/2)
Herbicidesflumetsulam, imazamox, imazethapyr, nicosulfuron, primisulfuron-methyl, prosulfuron, and rimsulfuron
LocationCanada, Ontario
Year2000
Situation(s)Corn (maize), and Soybean
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Jamshid Ashigh, and Francois Tardif 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Francois Tardif
Work on these biotypes has been published:

Ashigh, J. and Tardif, F. J. (2011) Water and temperature stress impact fitness of acetohydroxyacid synthase–inhibiting herbicide-resistant populations of eastern black nightshade (Solanum ptychanthum). Weed Science 59:341-348.

Ashigh, J, and Tardif, F.J. (2009) An amino acid substitution at position 205 of acetohydroxyacid synthase reduces fitness under optimal light in resistant populations of Solanum ptychanthum. Weed Research 49: 479-489.

Ashigh, J., Rajcan, I., and Tardif, F. J. (2008). Genetics of resistance to acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibitors in populations of eastern black nightshade (Solanum ptychanthum) from Ontario. Weed Science 56:210-215.

Ashigh, J. and Tardif, F. J. (2007) An Ala205Val substitution in acetohydroxyacid synthase of Eastern black nightshade (Solanum ptychanthum) reduces sensitivity to herbicides and feedback inhibition. Weed Science 55:558-565.

Ashigh, J. and Tardif, F. J. (2006) ALS-inhibitor resistance in populations of eastern black nightshade (Solanum ptycanthum) from Ontario. Weed Technology 20:308-314.

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GENERAL

Francois Tardif

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GENERAL

Francois Tardif
On fitness penalty. Our work (J. Ashigh and F. Tardif) showed that the Ala205Val mutation causes a fitness penalty. This manifests itself only as a slower rate of berry ripening, reducing the number of viable seeds. There was no difference in emegence rate, vegetative growth, onset of flowering, and number of flower or fruit.

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GENETICS

Francois Tardif
Twelve populations from Ontario are resistant due to a Ala205Val in the ALS gene. Another population is resistant due to Ala122Thr. Resistant is nuclearly inherited and is a semi-dominant trait.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Eastern Black Nightshade biotype with this Eastern Black Nightshade biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group B/2 resistant Eastern Black Nightshade indicate that the inheritance is determined by a one gene, semi dominant, nuclear trait.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group B/2 resistant Eastern Black Nightshade from Ontario indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

Researchers have indicated that Group B/2 resistant Eastern Black Nightshade is ecologically less fit than normal susceptible Eastern Black Nightshade.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the fitness of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

JAMSHID ASHIGH
Assistant Professor and Extension Weed Specialist
New Mexico State University
Extension Plant Sciences
Skeen Hall
Room N222
Las Cruces, 88003-8003, New Mexico
United States
Email Jamshid Ashigh
Web   : Web Site Link
FRANCOIS TARDIF
Associate Professor
University Of Guelph
Department Of Plant Agriculture
2055 Radatz Ave
Guelph, N1G 2W1, Ontario
Canada
Email Francois Tardif
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Ontario have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Jamshid Ashigh, and Francois Tardif for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Eastern Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum ptycanthum)
Herbicide Resistant Eastern Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum ptycanthum)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Eastern Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum ptycanthum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Canada (Ontario) CanadaOntario2000 Corn (maize), and Soybean flumetsulam, imazamox, imazethapyr, nicosulfuron, primisulfuron-methyl, prosulfuron, and rimsulfuron 7 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
190Solanum ptycanthumEastern Black Nightshade5211
2 Canada (Ontario) CanadaOntario2009 Blueberries paraquat 7 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
190Solanum ptycanthumEastern Black Nightshade5493
3 United States (Wisconsin) United StatesWisconsin1999 Soybean imazamox, and imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
190Solanum ptycanthumEastern Black Nightshade1170
4 United States (North Dakota) United StatesNorth Dakota1999 Soybean imazamox, and imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
190Solanum ptycanthumEastern Black Nightshade1196
5 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois1999 Soybean imazamox, and imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
190Solanum ptycanthumEastern Black Nightshade5184
6 United States (Michigan) United StatesMichigan2004 Blueberries atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
190Solanum ptycanthumEastern Black Nightshade5286
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