International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP D/22 RESISTANT FRINGED WILLOWHERB
(Epilobium ciliatum)


PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)

Belgium, East Flanders
INTRODUCTION FRINGED WILLOWHERB
Fringed Willowherb (Epilobium ciliatum) is a dicot weed in the Onagraceae family.  In Belgium this weed first evolved resistance to Group D/22 herbicides in 1982 and infests Pears.   Group D/22 herbicides are known as PSI Electron Diverter (Photosystem-I-electron diversion).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to paraquat and they may be cross-resistant to other Group D/22 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 15, 2000 )

Common NameFringed Willowherb
SpeciesEpilobium ciliatum
GroupPSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
Herbicidesparaquat
LocationBelgium, East Flanders
Year1982
Situation(s)Pears
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Robert Bulcke 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Robert Bulcke
Resistant biotypes occurring only in 2 long-term field experiments in pear orchards the first at Melle (province East-Flanders) and the second in Limburg province.

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GENERAL

Robert Bulcke
Resistant plants recover from initial damage after treatment with paraquat.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Fringed Willowherb biotype with this Fringed Willowherb biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group D/22 resistant Fringed Willowherb have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group D/22 resistant Fringed Willowherb from Belgium please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

ROBERT BULCKE
University Gent
Lab. Of Herbology - U. G.

Plant Div
635 Capitol St NE, Weed Control Program
Gent, B-9000
Belgium
Email Robert Bulcke

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Belgium have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Robert Bulcke for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Fringed Willowherb Globally
(Epilobium ciliatum)
Herbicide Resistant Fringed Willowherb Globally
(Epilobium ciliatum)
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Herbicide Resistant Fringed Willowherb Globally
(Epilobium ciliatum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 BelgiumBelgium 1980 Nurseries, Orchards, and Roadsides atrazine, and simazine 3 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb34
2 BelgiumBelgium 1982 Pears paraquat 3 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb39
3 PolandPoland 1995 Orchards atrazine 33 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb375
4 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1981 Orchards simazine 44 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb363
5 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1989 Hops paraquat 44 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
82Epilobium ciliatumFringed Willowherb360
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