International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP D/22 RESISTANT AMERICAN BLACK NIGHTSHADE
(Solanum americanum)


PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)

United States, Florida
INTRODUCTION AMERICAN BLACK NIGHTSHADE
American Black Nightshade (Solanum americanum) is a dicot weed in the Solanaceae family.  In Florida this weed first evolved resistance to Group D/22 herbicides in 1985 and infests Tomatoes.   Group D/22 herbicides are known as PSI Electron Diverter (Photosystem-I-electron diversion).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to paraquat and they may be cross-resistant to other Group D/22 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 15, 2000 )

Common NameAmerican Black Nightshade
SpeciesSolanum americanum
GroupPSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
Herbicidesparaquat
LocationUnited States, Florida
Year1985
Situation(s)Tomatoes
Contributors - (Alphabetically)William Stall 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

William Stall
Dade, Collier, Manatee, Hillsborough counties.

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GENERAL

William Stall
Publications on mechnism of resistance towards the end of the year.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible American Black Nightshade biotype with this American Black Nightshade biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group D/22 resistant American Black Nightshade have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group D/22 resistant American Black Nightshade from Florida please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

WILLIAM STALL
Professor and Extension Horticulture Specialist Weed Science
University Of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
1590 Long Lake Rd
Gainsville, 32611, Florida
United States
Email William Stall
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Florida have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to William Stall for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant American Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum americanum)
Herbicide Resistant American Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum americanum)
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Herbicide Resistant American Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum americanum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 New ZealandNew Zealand 2009 Sweet potato paraquat 30 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
161Solanum americanumAmerican Black Nightshade5729
2 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida1985 Tomatoes paraquat 45 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
161Solanum americanumAmerican Black Nightshade226
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Wednesday, December 11, 2019 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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