International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
MULTIPLE RESISTANT ITALIAN RYEGRASS
(Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum)


Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)

New Zealand
INTRODUCTION ITALIAN RYEGRASS
Italian Ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In New Zealand this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 3 herbicide sites of action) in 2015 and infests Grapefruit.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups F3/11, G/9, and H/10.  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to amitrole, glufosinate-ammonium, and glyphosate and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups F3/11, G/9, and H/10.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

If we do not have a picture for this weed, or you can provide a better picture (scan, digital camera etc) please please e-mail it to us.

QUIK STATS (last updated Nov 17, 2016 )

Common NameItalian Ryegrass
SpeciesLolium perenne ssp. multiflorum
GroupCarotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
Herbicidesamitrole, glufosinate-ammonium, and glyphosate
LocationNew Zealand
Year2015
Situation(s)Grapefruit
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Hossein Ghanizadeh, Kerry Harrington, and Trevor James 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Kerry Harrington

Crop Protection 78 (2015) 1-4

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2015.08.008

Glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum and Lolium perenne populations from New Zealand are also resistant to glufosinate and amitrole


Hossein Ghanizadeh a, Kerry C. Harrington a, *, Trevor K. James b
a Institute of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, PB 11-222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
b AgResearch, Ruakura Research Centre, PB 3123, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand

This study examined if glyphosate-resistant populations of Lolium multiflorum and Lolium perenne from some New Zealand vineyards were still susceptible to glufosinate and amitrole. The response of plants of one glyphosate-resistant population of L. multiflorum, population A, and two glyphosate-resistant L. perenne populations, populations J and O, to glufosinate and amitrole were evaluated and compared to susceptible populations in two dose response experiments. Based on the herbicide rates giving 50% reduction in growth (GR50 values), populations A, J and O were 3.9, 4.5 and 3.8 times more resistant to glufosinate respectively, compared to the susceptible populations in a glufosinate doseeresponse experiment. Populations A, J and O were also found to be 2.9, 5.0 and 13.1 times more resistant to amitrole respectively, in an amitrole dose response experiment. Very similar results were obtained when both dose response experiments were repeated. This is the first confirmed report of weed species that have developed multiple-resistance to glyphosate, glufosinate and amitrole. These are the three main herbicides currently used for weed control in New Zealand vineyards.

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GENERAL

Kerry Harrington

A glyphosate-resistant perennial ryegrass population is also resistant to amitrole.

H. Ghanizadeh1, K.C. Harrington1, T.K. James2 and D.J. Woolley1
1Institute of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, PB 11-222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand 2AgResearch, Ruakura Research Centre, PB 3123, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand
Corresponding author: K.Harrington@massey.ac.nz

A dose-response experiment was conducted on a previously confirmed glyphosate resistant perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) population from a Marlborough vineyard to examine if it is also resistant to amitrole after an initial experiment suggested amitrole is less effective on this population. The plants of two populations of perennial ryegrass, Population O (glyphosate resistant) and Population SP (glyphosate susceptible) were multiplied up by splitting out tillers and planting them into pots. The plants were sprayed with rates of amitrole from 0 to 9600 g ai/ha and each treatment consisted of five replicates (one plant per replicate). The dry weight of plant material was measured 8 weeks after herbicide application. The data were fitted to a three parameter logistic model and the herbicide rate giving 50% reduction in growth (GR50) was calculated. The GR50 value of Population SP for amitrole was 523 g ai/ha whereas the GR50 for Population O was found to be 13.1 times greater. This is the first confirmed case of amitrole resistance evolving within New Zealand and further work is currently underway to study this resistance. 

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Italian Ryegrass biotype with this Italian Ryegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group F3, G, H/11, 9, 10 resistant Italian Ryegrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Italian Ryegrass from New Zealand please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

HOSSEIN GHANIZADEH
Postdoctoral Fellow
Massey University
Agriculture and Environment
Palmerston North
New Zealand
Email Hossein Ghanizadeh
KERRY HARRINGTON
Postdoctoral Fellow
Massey University
Agriculture and Environment
624 Betts Rd
Palmerston North
New Zealand
Email Kerry Harrington
TREVOR JAMES
Postdoctoral Fellow
Agresearch Ruakura Research Centre
Agriculture and Environment
Private Bag 3123
Hamilton, 3240
New Zealand
Email Trevor James

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in New Zealand have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Hossein Ghanizadeh, Kerry Harrington, and Trevor James for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Italian Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum)
Herbicide Resistant Italian Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Italian Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2007 Cereals glyphosate 48 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5352
2 ArgentinaArgentina 2009 diclofop-methyl 48 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5586
3 ArgentinaArgentina 2010 Wheat glyphosate, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and pyroxsulam 48 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5599
4 BrazilBrazil 2003 Orchards, and Soybean glyphosate 5 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5205
5 BrazilBrazil 2010 Wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium 5 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5546
6 BrazilBrazil 2010 Corn (maize), Soybean, and Wheat clethodim, and glyphosate 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5547
7 BrazilBrazil 2016 Wheat clethodim, and iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass15057
8 BrazilBrazil 2017 Corn (maize), Soybean, and Wheat glyphosate, and pyroxsulam 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass15063
9 ChileChile 1998 Canola, Lupins, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, and haloxyfop-methyl 8 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5105
10 ChileChile 2001 Fruit, and Orchards glyphosate 8 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5096
11 ChileChile 2002 Wheat flucarbazone-sodium, glyphosate, glyphosate-trimesium, and iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium 8 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5371
12 ChileChile 2005 Canola, Lupins, and Wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, flucarbazone-sodium, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, pinoxaden, and tepraloxydim 8 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5424
13 ChileChile 2006 Lupins clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, and pinoxaden 8 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5445
14 ChileChile 2007 Spring Barley clethodim, flucarbazone-sodium, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, pinoxaden, and tepraloxydim 8 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5452
15 DenmarkDenmark 2010 Winter wheat clodinafop-propargyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and pyroxsulam 13 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5676
16 FranceFrance 1993 Wheat diclofop-methyl 17 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass549
17 ItalyItaly 1995 Alfalfa, and Durum wheat clodinafop-propargyl, cycloxydim, diclofop-methyl, pinoxaden, quizalofop-P-ethyl, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 24 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass8906
18 ItalyItaly 2002 Durum wheat clodinafop-propargyl, cycloxydim, diclofop-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 24 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass1134
19 ItalyItaly 2005 Durum wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and mesosulfuron-methyl 24 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass8907
20 ItalyItaly 2008 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, cycloxydim, glyphosate, and pinoxaden 24 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass8902
21 ItalyItaly 2012 Wheat glyphosate, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and mesosulfuron-methyl 24 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass8903
22 JapanJapan 2011 Rice Paddy Levee glyphosate 25 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass7770
23 New ZealandNew Zealand 2012 Grapes glyphosate 30 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass6749
24 New ZealandNew Zealand 2015 Grapefruit amitrole, glufosinate-ammonium, and glyphosate 30 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass14056
25 SpainSpain 2006 Orchards glyphosate 38 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5331
26 SwitzerlandSwitzerland 2011 Orchards glyphosate 41 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass11007
27 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1990 Canola, Cereals, and Wheat cycloxydim, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, pinoxaden, and tralkoxydim 44 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass356
28 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1990 Wheat isoproturon 44 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5080
29 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 2012 Cereals mesosulfuron-methyl, and pyroxsulam 44 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass10968
30 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1987 Wheat diclofop-methyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass320
31 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1990 Wheat diclofop-methyl, and sethoxydim 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass259
32 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1990 Wheat diclofop-methyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass268
33 United States (Idaho) United StatesIdaho1991 Canola, Chickpea, Lentils, Peas, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, and sethoxydim 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass519
34 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia1993 Wheat diclofop-methyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass275
35 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1995 Roadsides sulfometuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass526
36 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia1995 Canola, and Wheat diclofop-methyl, and sethoxydim 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass543
37 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1995 Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass1097
38 United States (Maryland) United StatesMaryland1998 Wheat diclofop-methyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass1084
39 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2003 Wheat chlorsulfuron, imazamox, mesosulfuron-methyl, and sulfometuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5399
40 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon2004 Orchards glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5249
41 United States (Kentucky) United StatesKentucky2004 Wheat diclofop-methyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass7877
42 United States (Idaho) United StatesIdaho2005 Canola, Chickpea, Lentils, Peas, and Wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, flufenacet, quizalofop-P-ethyl, and triasulfuron 45 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5280
43 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2005 Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5309
44 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2005 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, and pinoxaden 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5409
45 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2006 Winter wheat diclofop-methyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5316
46 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2007 Wheat mesosulfuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass7818
47 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2007 Wheat diclofop-methyl, imazamox, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, and pyroxsulam 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass7856
48 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2008 Wheat glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5401
49 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2008 Orchards, and Roadsides glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5698
50 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2009 Wheat diclofop-methyl, and mesosulfuron-methyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5500
51 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2009 Corn (maize), and Cotton glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass7811
52 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon2010 Orchards glufosinate-ammonium, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5564
53 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina2010 Wheat diclofop-methyl, mesosulfuron-methyl, and pyroxsulam 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass7782
54 United States (Delaware) United StatesDelaware2012 Wheat mesosulfuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5709
55 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2012 Corn (maize) glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass6753
56 United States (Missouri) United StatesMissouri2013 Corn (maize), Soybean, and Wheat mesosulfuron-methyl, and pinoxaden 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass7809
57 United States (Kentucky) United StatesKentucky2013 Wheat mesosulfuron-methyl, and pyroxsulam 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass7891
58 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana2014 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass8898
59 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2015 Grapes, and Orchards glufosinate-ammonium 45 Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass13044
60 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2015 Alfalfa, Grapes, and Orchards glyphosate, paraquat, and sethoxydim 45 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass15066
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