International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
MULTIPLE RESISTANT PERENNIAL RYEGRASS
(Lolium perenne)


Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)

New Zealand
INTRODUCTION PERENNIAL RYEGRASS
Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In New Zealand this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 3 herbicide sites of action) in 2015 and infests Grapes.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups F3/11, G/9, and H/10.  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to amitrole, glufosinate-ammonium, and glyphosate and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups F3/11, G/9, and H/10.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Nov 17, 2016 )

Common NamePerennial Ryegrass
SpeciesLolium perenne
GroupCarotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
Herbicidesamitrole, glufosinate-ammonium, and glyphosate
LocationNew Zealand
Year2015
Situation(s)Grapes
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Hossein Ghanizadeh, Kerry Harrington, and Trevor James 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Kerry Harrington

Crop Protection 78 (2015) 1-4

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2015.08.008

Glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum and Lolium perenne populations from New Zealand are also resistant to glufosinate and amitrole


Hossein Ghanizadeh a, Kerry C. Harrington a, *, Trevor K. James b
a Institute of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, PB 11-222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
b AgResearch, Ruakura Research Centre, PB 3123, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand

This study examined if glyphosate-resistant populations of Lolium multiflorum and Lolium perenne from some New Zealand vineyards were still susceptible to glufosinate and amitrole. The response of plants of one glyphosate-resistant population of L. multiflorum, population A, and two glyphosate-resistant L. perenne populations, populations J and O, to glufosinate and amitrole were evaluated and compared to susceptible populations in two dose response experiments. Based on the herbicide rates giving 50% reduction in growth (GR50 values), populations A, J and O were 3.9, 4.5 and 3.8 times more resistant to glufosinate respectively, compared to the susceptible populations in a glufosinate doseeresponse experiment. Populations A, J and O were also found to be 2.9, 5.0 and 13.1 times more resistant to amitrole respectively, in an amitrole dose response experiment. Very similar results were obtained when both dose response experiments were repeated. This is the first confirmed report of weed species that have developed multiple-resistance to glyphosate, glufosinate and amitrole. These are the three main herbicides currently used for weed control in New Zealand vineyards.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Perennial Ryegrass biotype with this Perennial Ryegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group F3, G, H/11, 9, 10 resistant Perennial Ryegrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Perennial Ryegrass from New Zealand please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

HOSSEIN GHANIZADEH
Postdoctoral Fellow
Massey University
Agriculture and Environment
Palmerston North
New Zealand
Email Hossein Ghanizadeh
KERRY HARRINGTON
Postdoctoral Fellow
Massey University
Agriculture and Environment
624 Betts Rd
Palmerston North
New Zealand
Email Kerry Harrington
TREVOR JAMES
Postdoctoral Fellow
Agresearch Ruakura Research Centre
Agriculture and Environment
Private Bag 3123
Hamilton, 3240
New Zealand
Email Trevor James

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in New Zealand have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Hossein Ghanizadeh, Kerry Harrington, and Trevor James for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Perennial Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium perenne)
Herbicide Resistant Perennial Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium perenne)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Perennial Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium perenne)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2008 Soybean, Spring Barley, and Wheat glyphosate 48 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass5487
2 ChileChile 2001 Cereals clodinafop-propargyl, and diclofop-methyl 8 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass5397
3 DenmarkDenmark 2016 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, and iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium 13 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass15077
4 GermanyGermany 2008 Wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, pinoxaden, and pyroxsulam 18 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass5385
5 New ZealandNew Zealand 2012 Grapes glyphosate 30 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass6750
6 New ZealandNew Zealand 2015 Grapes amitrole, glufosinate-ammonium, and glyphosate 30 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass14055
7 PortugalPortugal 2013 Grapes glyphosate 34 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass7825
8 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia1989 Railways, and Roadsides sulfometuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass396
9 United States (Texas) United StatesTexas1989 Roadsides sulfometuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass397
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Friday, November 24, 2017 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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