International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP D/22 RESISTANT SARAMOLLAGRASS
(Ischaemum rugosum)


PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)

Malaysia, Saramrah
INTRODUCTION SARAMOLLAGRASS
Saramollagrass (Ischaemum rugosum) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Malaysia this weed first evolved resistance to Group D/22 herbicides in 1989 and infests Rubber, and Vegetables.   Group D/22 herbicides are known as PSI Electron Diverter (Photosystem-I-electron diversion).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to paraquat and they may be cross-resistant to other Group D/22 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 15, 2000 )

Common NameSaramollagrass
SpeciesIschaemum rugosum
GroupPSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
Herbicidesparaquat
LocationMalaysia, Saramrah
Year1989
Situation(s)Rubber, and Vegetables
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Baki Bakar 
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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field trials comparing a known susceptible Saramollagrass biotype with this Saramollagrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group D/22 resistant Saramollagrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group D/22 resistant Saramollagrass from Malaysia please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

BAKI BAKAR
Senior Research Fellow
Institute of Biological Sciences, University Of Malaya
Dept. Of Botany
Faculty of Science Building
Kuala Lumpur, 50603 , Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
Email Baki Bakar
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Malaysia have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Baki Bakar for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Saramollagrass Globally
(Ischaemum rugosum)
Herbicide Resistant Saramollagrass Globally
(Ischaemum rugosum)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Saramollagrass Globally
(Ischaemum rugosum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ColombiaColombia 2000 Rice fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 10 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
99Ischaemum rugosumSaramollagrass5143
2 ColombiaColombia 2009 Rice bispyribac-sodium 10 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
99Ischaemum rugosumSaramollagrass18166
3 MalaysiaMalaysia 1989 Rubber, and Vegetables paraquat 28 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
99Ischaemum rugosumSaramollagrass139
4 VenezuelaVenezuela 2004 Rice bispyribac-sodium, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, imazapyr, imazethapyr, profoxydim, propanil, and pyribenzoxim 80 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
99Ischaemum rugosumSaramollagrass5552
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Monday, September 16, 2019 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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