The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.
QUIK STATS (last updated Dec 15, 2013 )
NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE
CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS
Resistance to protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (PPO)-inhibitors in Amaranthus palmeri and Amaranthus tuberculatus is mainly contributed by mutations in the PPO enzyme, which renders herbicide molecules ineffective. The deletion of glycine210 (∆G210) is the most predominant PPO mutation. ∆G210-ppo2 is overexpressed in rice (Oryza sativac. ‘Nipponbare’) and Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0). A foliar assay was conducted on transgenic T1 rice plants with 2× dose of fomesafen(780 g ha−1), showing less injury than the non-transgenic (WT) plants. A soil-based assay conducted with T2 rice seeds confirmed tolerance to fomesafen applied pre-emergence. In agar medium, root growth of WT rice seedlings was inhibited 90% at 5μM fomesafen, while root growth of T2seedlings was inhibited by 50% at 45 μM fomesafen. The presence and expression of the transgene were confirmed in the T2rice survivors of soil-applied fomesafen. A soil-based assay was also conducted with transgenic A. thaliana expressing ∆G210-ppo2 which confirmed tolerance to the pre-emergence application of fomesafen and saflufenacil. The expression of A. palmeri ∆G210-ppo2 successfully conferred tolerance to soil-applied fomesafen in rice and Arabidopsis. This mutant also confers cross-tolerance to saflufenacil in Arabidopsis. This trait could be introduced into high-value crops that lack chemical options for weed management.