International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP B/2 RESISTANT RED RICE
(Oryza sativa var. sylvatica)


ALS inhibitors (B/2)

Greece
INTRODUCTION RED RICE
Red Rice (Oryza sativa var. sylvatica) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Greece this weed first evolved resistance to Group B/2 herbicides in 2013 and infests Rice.   Group B/2 herbicides are known as ALS inhibitors (Inhibition of acetolactate synthase ALS (acetohydroxyacid synthase AHAS)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to imazamox, and imazethapyr and they may be cross-resistant to other Group B/2 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Oct 19, 2016 )

Common NameRed Rice
SpeciesOryza sativa var. sylvatica
GroupALS inhibitors (B/2)
Herbicidesimazamox, and imazethapyr
LocationGreece
Year2013
Situation(s)Rice
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Ilias Eleftherohorinos, and Nikolaos Kaloumenos 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

MECHANISM

Ilias Eleftherohorinos

Red rice (Oryza sativa) cross-resistance to imidazolinone herbicides used in resistant rice cultivars grown in northern Greece
Nikolaos S. Kaloumenos, Nieves Capote, Ana Aguado, Ilias G. Eleftherohorinos

Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 105 (2013) 177–183

A putative resistant red rice (Oryza sativa) accession, an imidazolinone-resistant rice cultivar (Clearfield), a susceptible red rice accession and a susceptible rice cultivar were evaluated for cross-resistance to imazamox and imazethapyr in a whole-plant response experiment and seed bioassay. Additionally, a 210-bp fragment of the ALS gene was sequenced to identify mutations responsible for resistance. Also, a 574 bp of the ALS gene was sequenced and PCR for detection of the ‘Clearfield allele’ was conducted by the Andalusian Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IFAPA, Spain). In the whole-plant response experiment, the putative resistant red rice was >23 and >21 times more resistant to imazamox and imazethapyr than the susceptible accession, respectively, whereas the respective resistance factor values based on seed bioassay were 86.4 and 141.7. Also, the respective resistance factor values for the Clearfield rice cultivar were similar with those calculated for putative resistant red rice. Additionally, the sequence of the 210 bp ALS gene fragment from the putative resistant red rice and Clearfield rice cultivar revealed the same amino acid substitution of Ser653Asn in both alleles (homozygous). Furthermore, the sequence of a 574 bp ALS gene fragment and the PCR for detection of the ‘Clearfield allele’ confirmed that the putative resistant red rice is homozygous mutant for the Ser653Asn mutation and provided additional evidence that its genetic background matches that of Clearfield rice. These findings indicate clearly that the insufficient control of the putative resistant red rice with imazamox was due to target-site resistance and particularly due to a point mutation at the Ser653 codon, which is positively identified as having been derived from the Clearfield rice cultivar.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Red Rice biotype with this Red Rice biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group B/2 resistant Red Rice indicate that the inheritance is determined by a one gene, nuclear trait.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group B/2 resistant Red Rice from Greece indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group B/2 resistant Red Rice from Greece please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

ILIAS ELEFTHEROHORINOS
University Of Thessaloniki
Laboratory Of Agronomy
4033 Kensington Pl
Ghessaloniki, 54006
Greece
Email Ilias Eleftherohorinos
NIKOLAOS KALOUMENOS
Aristotle University Of Thessaloniki
Department Of Agriculture
4033 Kensington Pl
Thessaloniki, 54006
Greece
Email Nikolaos Kaloumenos

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Greece have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Ilias Eleftherohorinos, and Nikolaos Kaloumenos for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Red Rice Globally
(Oryza sativa var. sylvatica)
Herbicide Resistant Red Rice Globally
(Oryza sativa var. sylvatica)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Red Rice Globally
(Oryza sativa var. sylvatica)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 BrazilBrazil 2006 Rice imazapic, and imazethapyr 5 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
242Oryza sativa var. sylvaticaRed Rice5372
2 Costa RicaCosta Rica 2010 Rice imazapic, and imazapyr 11 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
242Oryza sativa var. sylvaticaRed Rice7885
3 GreeceGreece 2013 Rice imazamox, and imazethapyr 19 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
242Oryza sativa var. sylvaticaRed Rice13054
4 ItalyItaly 2010 Rice imazamox 24 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
242Oryza sativa var. sylvaticaRed Rice5614
5 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2002 Rice imazamox, imazapyr, imazaquin, imazethapyr, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
242Oryza sativa var. sylvaticaRed Rice13046
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