International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP B/2 RESISTANT BARNYARDGRASS
(Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli)


ALS inhibitors (B/2)

Spain
INTRODUCTION BARNYARDGRASS
Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Spain this weed first evolved resistance to Group B/2 herbicides in 2015 and infests Corn (maize).   Group B/2 herbicides are known as ALS inhibitors (Inhibition of acetolactate synthase ALS (acetohydroxyacid synthase AHAS)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to nicosulfuron and they may be cross-resistant to other Group B/2 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Feb 02, 2016 )

Common NameBarnyardgrass
SpeciesEchinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli
GroupALS inhibitors (B/2)
Herbicidesnicosulfuron
LocationSpain
Year2015
Situation(s)Corn (maize)
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Jose María Montull , and Andreu Taberner 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

MECHANISM

Andreu Taberner
In 2015 we received complaints of lack of control in Echinochloa crus galli in maize with ALS inhibitors. We confirmed the resistance in two populations treated with nicosulfuron. The resistance is due to altered target site at Pro197. We confirmed this mechanism with secuentation in our laboratory.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Barnyardgrass biotype with this Barnyardgrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group B/2 resistant Barnyardgrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group B/2 resistant Barnyardgrass from Spain indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group B/2 resistant Barnyardgrass from Spain please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

JOSE MARÍA MONTULL
Universitat de Lleida. Agrotecnio
Rovira Roure
191
Lleida, Catalonia
Spain
Email Jose María Montull
ANDREU TABERNER
University of Lleida
Secció De Malherbologia
Servicio Proteccisn Vegetales
PO Box 619
Lleida, 25198, Catalonia
Spain
Email Andreu Taberner

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Spain have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Jose María Montull , and Andreu Taberner for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Barnyardgrass Globally
(Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli)
Herbicide Resistant Barnyardgrass Globally
(Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Barnyardgrass Globally
(Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 AustriaAustria 2011 Corn (maize) nicosulfuron 2 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass6747
2 BrazilBrazil 1999 Rice quinclorac 5 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1191
3 BrazilBrazil 2009 Rice bispyribac-sodium, imazethapyr, penoxsulam, and quinclorac 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5484
4 BrazilBrazil 2015 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, penoxsulam, and quinclorac (MOA in monocots) 5 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Cellulose inhibitors (L/26)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass15069
5 BulgariaBulgaria 1992 Orchards pendimethalin 6 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass544
6 Canada (Ontario) CanadaOntario1981 Corn (maize), and Cropland atrazine 7 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass62
7 ChinaChina 1993 Rice butachlor 9 Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass69
8 ChinaChina 1993 Rice thiobencarb = benthiocarb 9 Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass379
9 ChinaChina 2000 Rice quinclorac 9 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5538
10 ChinaChina 2010 Rice, and Soybean fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and quizalofop-P-ethyl 9 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5474
11 ChinaChina 2011 Rice penoxsulam 9 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5653
12 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 1994 Corn (maize) atrazine 12 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5052
13 EgyptEgypt 2009 Rice fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 15 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7897
14 FranceFrance 1982 Corn (maize) atrazine 17 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass462
15 FranceFrance 2013 Corn (maize), and Rice foramsulfuron, and penoxsulam 17 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass9934
16 GermanyGermany 2012 Corn (maize) nicosulfuron 18 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5738
17 GreeceGreece 1986 Rice propanil 19 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass89
18 ItalyItaly 2000 Rice propanil 24 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5114
19 ItalyItaly 2005 Corn (maize), and Rice azimsulfuron, bispyribac-sodium, imazamox, nicosulfuron, and penoxsulam 24 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5356
20 ItalyItaly 2009 Rice azimsulfuron, bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop-butyl, imazamox, penoxsulam, and profoxydim 24 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5639
21 ItalyItaly 2011 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, and profoxydim 24 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass8904
22 JapanJapan 2010 Rice cyhalofop-butyl 25 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7769
23 PhilippinesPhilippines 2005 Rice butachlor, and propanil 32 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5272
24 PolandPoland 1995 Orchards atrazine 33 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass374
25 SerbiaSerbia 2002 Soybean imazethapyr 245 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5217
26 South KoreaSouth Korea 2008 Rice azimsulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, flucetosulfuron, halosulfuron-methyl, imazosulfuron, metamifop, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, pyribenzoxim, and pyriminobac-methyl 27 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5525
27 SpainSpain 1992 Corn (maize) atrazine 38 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass171
28 SpainSpain 2015 Corn (maize) nicosulfuron 38 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass11016
29 Sri LankaSri Lanka 1997 Rice propanil 39 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass535
30 ThailandThailand 1998 Rice butachlor, and propanil 47 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1185
31 ThailandThailand 2001 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and quizalofop-P-tefuryl 47 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5113
32 TurkeyTurkey 2009 Rice bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop-butyl, and penoxsulam 71 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5531
33 United States (Maryland) United StatesMaryland1978 Corn (maize), and Cropland atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass426
34 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1990 Cropland, and Rice propanil 45 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass399
35 United States (Texas) United StatesTexas1991 Rice propanil 45 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass271
36 United States (Missouri) United StatesMissouri1994 Rice propanil 45 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1082
37 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana1995 Rice propanil 45 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1046
38 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana1998 Rice quinclorac 45 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1180
39 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1999 Rice propanil, and quinclorac 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1188
40 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2000 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, molinate, and thiobencarb = benthiocarb 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
Lipid Inhibitors (N/8)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5136
41 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2008 Rice clomazone 45 DOXP inhibitors (F4/13)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5563
42 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2011 Rice fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, imazamox, imazethapyr, propanil, and quinclorac (MOA in monocots) 45 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
Cellulose inhibitors (L/26)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass8901
43 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana2013 Rice imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7786
44 UruguayUruguay 2013 Rice quinclorac 73 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7812
45 UruguayUruguay 2013 Rice imazapic, and imazapyr 73 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7813
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