International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
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Herbicide Resistant Italian Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum)
Herbicide Resistant Italian Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum)
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Herbicide Resistant Italian Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2007 Cereals glyphosate 48 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5352
2 ArgentinaArgentina 2009 diclofop-methyl 48 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5586
3 ArgentinaArgentina 2010 Wheat glyphosate, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and pyroxsulam 48 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5599
4 BrazilBrazil 2003 Orchards, and Soybean glyphosate 5 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5205
5 BrazilBrazil 2010 Wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium 5 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5546
6 BrazilBrazil 2010 Corn (maize), Soybean, and Wheat clethodim, and glyphosate 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5547
7 BrazilBrazil 2016 Wheat clethodim, and iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass15057
8 BrazilBrazil 2017 Corn (maize), Soybean, and Wheat glyphosate, and pyroxsulam 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass15063
9 ChileChile 1998 Canola, Lupins, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, and haloxyfop-methyl 8 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5105
10 ChileChile 2001 Fruit, and Orchards glyphosate 8 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5096
11 ChileChile 2002 Wheat flucarbazone-sodium, glyphosate, glyphosate-trimesium, and iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium 8 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5371
12 ChileChile 2005 Canola, Lupins, and Wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, flucarbazone-sodium, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, pinoxaden, and tepraloxydim 8 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5424
13 ChileChile 2006 Lupins clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, and pinoxaden 8 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5445
14 ChileChile 2007 Spring Barley clethodim, flucarbazone-sodium, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, pinoxaden, and tepraloxydim 8 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5452
15 DenmarkDenmark 2010 Winter wheat clodinafop-propargyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and pyroxsulam 13 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5676
16 FranceFrance 1993 Wheat diclofop-methyl 17 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass549
17 ItalyItaly 1995 Alfalfa, and Durum wheat clodinafop-propargyl, cycloxydim, diclofop-methyl, pinoxaden, quizalofop-P-ethyl, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 24 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass8906
18 ItalyItaly 2002 Durum wheat clodinafop-propargyl, cycloxydim, diclofop-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 24 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass1134
19 ItalyItaly 2005 Durum wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and mesosulfuron-methyl 24 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass8907
20 ItalyItaly 2008 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, cycloxydim, glyphosate, and pinoxaden 24 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass8902
21 ItalyItaly 2012 Wheat glyphosate, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and mesosulfuron-methyl 24 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass8903
22 JapanJapan 2011 Rice Paddy Levee glyphosate 25 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass7770
23 New ZealandNew Zealand 2012 Grapes glyphosate 30 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass6749
24 New ZealandNew Zealand 2015 Grapefruit amitrole, glufosinate-ammonium, and glyphosate 30 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass14056
25 SpainSpain 2006 Orchards glyphosate 38 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5331
26 SwitzerlandSwitzerland 2011 Orchards glyphosate 41 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass11007
27 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1990 Canola, Cereals, and Wheat cycloxydim, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, pinoxaden, and tralkoxydim 44 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass356
28 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1990 Wheat isoproturon 44 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5080
29 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 2012 Cereals mesosulfuron-methyl, and pyroxsulam 44 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass10968
30 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1987 Wheat diclofop-methyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass320
31 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1990 Wheat diclofop-methyl, and sethoxydim 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass259
32 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1990 Wheat diclofop-methyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass268
33 United States (Idaho) United StatesIdaho1991 Canola, Chickpea, Lentils, Peas, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, and sethoxydim 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass519
34 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia1993 Wheat diclofop-methyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass275
35 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1995 Roadsides sulfometuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass526
36 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia1995 Canola, and Wheat diclofop-methyl, and sethoxydim 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass543
37 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1995 Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass1097
38 United States (Maryland) United StatesMaryland1998 Wheat diclofop-methyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass1084
39 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2003 Wheat chlorsulfuron, imazamox, mesosulfuron-methyl, and sulfometuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5399
40 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon2004 Orchards glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5249
41 United States (Kentucky) United StatesKentucky2004 Wheat diclofop-methyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass7877
42 United States (Idaho) United StatesIdaho2005 Canola, Chickpea, Lentils, Peas, and Wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, flufenacet, quizalofop-P-ethyl, and triasulfuron 45 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5280
43 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2005 Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5309
44 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2005 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, and pinoxaden 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5409
45 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2006 Winter wheat diclofop-methyl 45 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5316
46 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2007 Wheat mesosulfuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass7818
47 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2007 Wheat diclofop-methyl, imazamox, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, and pyroxsulam 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass7856
48 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2008 Wheat glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5401
49 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2008 Orchards, and Roadsides glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5698
50 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2009 Wheat diclofop-methyl, and mesosulfuron-methyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5500
51 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2009 Corn (maize), and Cotton glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass7811
52 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon2010 Orchards glufosinate-ammonium, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5564
53 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina2010 Wheat diclofop-methyl, mesosulfuron-methyl, and pyroxsulam 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass7782
54 United States (Delaware) United StatesDelaware2012 Wheat mesosulfuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass5709
55 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2012 Corn (maize) glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass6753
56 United States (Missouri) United StatesMissouri2013 Corn (maize), Soybean, and Wheat mesosulfuron-methyl, and pinoxaden 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass7809
57 United States (Kentucky) United StatesKentucky2013 Wheat mesosulfuron-methyl, and pyroxsulam 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass7891
58 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana2014 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass8898
59 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2015 Grapes, and Orchards glufosinate-ammonium 45 Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass13044
60 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2015 Alfalfa, Grapes, and Orchards glyphosate, paraquat, and sethoxydim 45 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
110Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorumItalian Ryegrass15066
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Tuesday, April 25, 2017 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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