INTERNATIONAL HERBICIDE-RESISTANT WEED DATABASE

GROUP G/9 RESISTANT GOOSEGRASS
(Eleusine indica)


EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)

Italy, Caserta (CE), Campania region, southern Italy
INTRODUCTION GOOSEGRASS
Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Italy this weed first evolved resistance to Group G/9 herbicides in 2019 and infests Nurseries.   Group G/9 herbicides are known as EPSP synthase inhibitors (Inhibition of EPSP synthase).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to glyphosate and they may be cross-resistant to other Group G/9 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Nov 13, 2020 )

Common NameGoosegrass
SpeciesEleusine indica
GroupEPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Herbicidesglyphosate
LocationItaly, Caserta (CE), Campania region, southern Italy
Year2019
Situation(s)Nurseries
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Donato Loddo, Silvia Panozzo, Maurizio Sattin, and Giuseppe Zanin 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

This study has been described in an article recently published on Agronomy (MDPI):

Loddo, D.; Imperatore, G.; Milani, A.; Panozzo, S.; Farinati, S.; Sattin, M.; Zanin, G. First Report of Glyphosate-Resistant Biotype of Eleusine Indica (L.) Gaertn. in Europe. Agronomy 2020, 10, 1692

This article is available online at https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4395/10/11/1692

The case was brought to the attention of the survey by Donato Loddo.

The population was confirmed as glyphosate-resistant due to Target Site mechanism (amino acid substitution P106A). This represents the first case of glyphosate-resistant population of E.  indica in Europe.  

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, and Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Goosegrass biotype with this Goosegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group G/9 resistant Goosegrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group G/9 resistant Goosegrass from Italy indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group G/9 resistant Goosegrass from Italy please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

DONATO LODDO
Researcher
National Research Council of Italy
Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection
viale dell'Universita 16
Legnaro, 35020, Veneto
Italy
Email Donato Loddo
SILVIA PANOZZO
Weed Scientist
Italian National Research Council (CNR)
IBAF - Weed Research Unit
Viale dell'Università 16
Legnaro, 35020, Padova
Italy
Email Silvia Panozzo
MAURIZIO SATTIN
Senior Weed Scientist
Italian National Research Council (cnr)
IBAF - Weed Science Unit
Viale dell'Università 16
Legnaro, 35020, Padova
Italy
Email Maurizio Sattin
GIUSEPPE ZANIN
Senior Weed Scientist
Univ. Di Padova
Dip. Agronomia Ambientale E Produzione Vegetali
809 Mace Blvd
Legnaro, 35020, Padova
Italy
Email Giuseppe Zanin

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Italy have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Donato Loddo, Silvia Panozzo, Maurizio Sattin, and Giuseppe Zanin for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2012 Corn (maize), Fallow, and Soybean glyphosate 48 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5701
2 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2015 Sugarcane for sugar paraquat 1 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass11024
3 BoliviaBolivia 2005 Rice, Soybean, and Wheat clethodim, cyhalofop-butyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, and haloxyfop-methyl 4 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5412
4 BoliviaBolivia 2007 Soybean glyphosate 4 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7887
5 BrazilBrazil 2003 Soybean cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and sethoxydim 5 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5245
6 BrazilBrazil 2016 Corn (maize), Soybean, and Wheat glyphosate 5 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass13039
7 BrazilBrazil 2017 Beans, Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, glyphosate, and haloxyfop-methyl 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass17112
8 ChinaChina 2010 Unspecified paraquat 9 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5659
9 ChinaChina 2010 Orchards glyphosate 9 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5661
10 ColombiaColombia 2006 Coffee, and Corn (maize) glyphosate 10 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5365
11 ColombiaColombia 2016 Corn (maize) glyphosate, and paraquat 10 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass18177
12 Costa RicaCosta Rica 1989 Industrial sites imazapyr 11 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass73
13 Costa RicaCosta Rica 2010 Pejibaye palm glyphosate 11 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7884
14 IndonesiaIndonesia 2012 Oil Palm Nursery glyphosate, and paraquat 22 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass11020
15 IndonesiaIndonesia 2012 Corn (maize) paraquat 22 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass13034
16 ItalyItaly 2019 Nurseries glyphosate 24 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass18208
17 JapanJapan 2013 Rice Paddy Levee glyphosate 25 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass10998
18 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Cropland, and Vegetables fluazifop-P-butyl, and propaquizafop 28 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass133
19 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Vegetables paraquat 28 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass140
20 MalaysiaMalaysia 1997 Orchards fluazifop-P-butyl, and glyphosate 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1125
21 MalaysiaMalaysia 2009 Vegetables glufosinate-ammonium, and paraquat 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7873
22 MalaysiaMalaysia 2009 Oil Palm Nursery butroxydim, fluazifop-P-butyl, glufosinate-ammonium, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, and paraquat 28 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass9927
23 MexicoMexico 2016 Oranges glyphosate 29 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass18194
24 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1973 Cotton trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass258
25 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1974 Cotton, and Soybean trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass266
26 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama1987 Cotton trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass223
27 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1988 Cotton, Golf courses, and Turf pendimethalin, prodiamine, and trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1103
28 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1989 Cotton, and Cropland trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass400
29 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia1992 Cotton, Golf courses, and Turf trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1043
30 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1994 Cotton pendimethalin, and trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass255
31 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida1996 Tomatoes paraquat 45 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5053
32 United States (Hawaii) United StatesHawaii2003 Turf metribuzin 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5533
33 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2010 Cotton glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5503
34 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2011 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5549
35 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2015 Golf courses oxadiazon 45 PPO inhibitors (E/14)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass15072
36 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia2015 Golf courses oxadiazon 45 PPO inhibitors (E/14)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass15073
37 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama2019 Tomatoes paraquat 45 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass18191
Literature about Similar Cases

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